Intensive English Language Program Administration: An Annotated Bibliography

INTENSIVE ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION:
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Compiled by
Ann Tallant
Paul Matthews

A Project for Linguistics 9010 (Spring Semester, 1999), The University of Georgia

Directed by Martyn J. Miller
Director, Office of International Services
Temple University


CONTENTS

General Administrative Issues
Budgeting
Computers in ESL
Curriculum Design, Testing, and Placement
Institutional Linkages
Leadership
Personnel Management
Publicity, Marketing, and Recruitment
Strategic Planning
Student Services


GENERAL

Christison, M. A., & Stoller, F. L. (Eds.). (1997). A handbook for language program administrators. Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center.

This book's seventeen chapters and assorted sections include background information on IEPs, and discuss the role of the IEP administrator as a leader, planner, and decision maker, as a promoter of the program and staff, and as a visionary. It includes information on program organizational theory, budgeting, marketing, personnel management, gender issues, immigration issues, outreach, strategic planning, and technology. The chapters are well-written and engaging, and do a good job of both providing sufficient introduction to newcomers to the field and offering concrete recommendations and new directions for current administrators. Each chapter includes discussion questions and selected annotated references; the book itself includes an acronym glossary, extensive references, and good indices. This book is highly recommended.

Eskey, D. E. (1997). "The IEP as a nontraditional entity." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.) A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 21-30). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center Publishers.

Examines the various facets of IEPs that work to marginalize them in the academic community: the highly nontraditional students, the lack of status of IEP faculty, and the administrative disenfranchisement of most IEPs. Contains an interesting examination of the issue of accreditation. Presents an argument for treating IEPs on a par with traditional academic departments, but concludes that the idea is unrealistic, explaining his position in terms of the nature of IEPs. Argues instead that IEPs be treated as the nontraditional but valuable entities that they are. Worthwhile reading for the IEP administrator.

Johns, A. M., & Dudley-Evans, T. (1991). "English for specific purposes: International in scope, specific in purpose." TESOL Quarterly, 25, 297-314.

For an administrator considering the focus of the courses taught in her program. Examines just what ESP is and what sets it apart from other English teaching, notably assessment of student needs and analysis of discourse in the target field (to inform curriculum development). Considers some current issues in the field, including the need for empirical studies of effectiveness, appropriate degree of specificity in courses, and methodology. Finally, suggests areas of need, both internationally and in the U.S.

GlobalStudy, Inc. (1997-1999). Resources for ESL program administrators [On-line]. Available at http://www.globalstudy.com/esladmin/www.html

This web site offers an extensive bibliography of resources relevant to IEP administration. Bibliography headings include: Overall, Curriculum development and models, Predicting academic success, Students' needs, Instructional materials and language lab, Student evaluation and testing, Cultural component, English for special purposes, English for academic purposes, Personnel, Budgeting and finance, Marketing, Leadership, Higher education, Students, and Program evaluation. This website also offers select links to professional associations, electronic forums, and agencies. Additionally, there are links useful for marketing and recruitment. This is a resource which should definitely be known to IEP administrators and faculty.

Kaplan, R. B. (1997). "An IEP is a many-splendored thing." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp.3-19). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center.

Kaplan offers an overview of Intensive English Programs, including a discussion of historical influences and the rise of these programs in the US. He briefly discusses considerations such as the location of these programs and their staff to the host institution; the director's role; and the influences of International Teaching Assistant training and TOEFL on IEPs. Kaplan also mentions the broad spectrum of instructional features and possible contacts of these programs. As an introductory chapter to Christison and Stoller's Handbook, its best contribution is its historical perspective of IEPs; otherwise, this chapter fails to offer enough detail or originality to provide a compelling read.

Pennington, M. C. (Ed.). (1991). Building better English language programs. Washington, DC: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.

This edited volume is an excellent resource for IEP administrators. It focuses primarily on program evaluation, but also has valuable background and practical information about a variety of facets of program administration.

Stoynoff, S. (1993). "Ethics and intensive English programs." TESOL Journal, 2(3), 4-6.

Surveys some of the ethical dilemmas facing the IEP administrator, including privacy issues, enrollment issues, accuracy in publicity, conflicts of interest. Recommends the creation of a personal philosophy statement in anticipation of the kinds of dilemmas one might expect to encounter.

Zamel, V. (1995). "Strangers in academia: The experiences of faculty and ESL students across the curriculum." College Composition and Communication, 46, 506-521.

An important article that asks us to reexamine our conceptualization of our own teaching in light of the experiences of ESL students in our classes. It is her position that our traditional classroom practices don't really work for anyone: "What ESL students need-multiple opportunities to use language and write-to-learn, course work which draws on and values what students already know, classroom exchanges and assignments that promote the acquisition of unfamiliar language, concepts, and approaches to inquiry, evaluation that allows students to demonstrate genuine understanding-is good pedagogy for everyone" (519). Highly recommended reading.

ALSO OF INTEREST

Palmer, I. (1995). "Present and future tense: Intensive English in the U.S.A." In T. M. Davis (Ed.), Open Doors 1994/95: Report on international educational exchange (pp. 148-149). New York: Institute of International Education.

Perdreau, C. (1994). "Roles, responsibilities, and priorities of the intensive English program." Journal of Intensive English Studies, 8, 1-25.

Stoller, F. L. (1992). "Taxonomy of intensive English program innovations." Journal of Intensive English Studies, 6, 1-26.

Return to Table of Contents

BUDGETING

California Department of Education. (1993). English as a second language: Implementing effective adult education programs. Sacramento: Author. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 369 303)

This is a training manual for ESL teachers in California, but the chapter on ESL management is also relevant to IEP management. It includes brief information about soliciting funding.

Garrott, C. L. (1992). Materials and purchasing management: The foreign languages department. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 351 888)

Garrott describes strategic management and its constituent terminology, including budgeting, purchasing, and inventory. This article includes several useful checklists and questions to ask at each stage of budgeting and purchasing equipment; this is a good introduction to this topic.

Impey, G., & Underhill, N. (1994). The ELT manager's handbook. London: Heinemann.

Impey and Underhill discuss management with a specific focus on issues which will likely be helpful to IEP administrators. They include chapters on determining mission, managing people, marketing and promotion, and managing money. See Lynn (1996) (in the Leadership section) for a review of this book.

Mickelson, C. (1997). "Grants and projects (as if you don't have enough to do already)." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 275-293). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center.

Mickelson provides an excellent overview to the how and why of obtaining grants for IEP programming. He discusses both the benefits and risks of grants for the program, faculty and administration, and provides specific details about each step involved and what must be considered. He includes descriptions of grant searchers, bidding and budgeting. He argues that grants provide a way to enhance revenue, increase faculty development, enhance program reputation, and develop ties with the host institution. Mickelson includes three appendices which include grant and project ideas, detailed steps for project development and implementation, and WWW sites for grant information. While this chapter is likely most useful for administrators without extensive experience in applying for grants, it provides a wealth of ideas and practical suggestions likely to assist even experienced grant writers.

Miller, M. J. (1997, October). Budgeting for ESL programs. Presentation at NAFSA Region VII ATESL Professional Development Workshop, Orlando, FL.

Miller presented sample demographic and budget information for IEPs, as well as an overview of the budgeting process.

Ponder, R., & Powell, B. (1991). "Creating and operating a statistical database for evaluation in an English language program." In M. C. Pennington (Ed.), Building better English language programs (pp. 155-171). Washington, DC: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.

While Ponder and Powell are not primarily concerned with addressing the utility of a computerized database for budgeting, their arguments in favor of creating such a database are equally applicable to this area. Most IEP administrators will likely find that the particulars Ponder and Powell describe are nothing new for them, however.

Snoke, J. M. (1994). "Report from Baltimore: Ethical issues for intensive English programs." Intensive English Programs Newsletter, 12(1), p. 3.

In this brief report Snoke describes topics discussed at an IEP discussion group at the Baltimore TESOL Conference, centering around IEP ethics. She notes that host institution control of IEP budgets negatively impacts IEP integrity. This article is quite short but summarizes some important concerns for IEP directors and staff.

Staczek, J. J. (1997). "The language program budget: Financial planning and management of resources." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 219-234). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center.

Staczek provides an in-depth look at the basics of budgets in the context of IEP administration. He defines basic terminology and provides a glossary for many terms. He discusses how a language program's budget ties in to the institution, with reporting and strategic planning. Staczek explains the sub-categories of a typical budget, discusses monitoring and accounting, and generally does a good job of not pitching the presentation above the head of a novice. This is a good basic introduction to IEP budgeting.

Steadman, M. (1997). "Section 3: Budgeting." In NAFSA: Association of International Educators, Foundations of international education: ESL program administration. PDP Participant Manual. Washington, DC: Author.

In this section of the manual for participants in NAFSA's Professional Development Program workshop, Steadman explains the rationale and methods of budgeting, offering sample budgets and spreadsheets. This section contains some interesting models for IEP administrators who have little experience with budgeting.

White, R., Martin, M., Stimson, M., & Hodge, R. (1991). Management in English language teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press.

While this volume is geared toward British programs (e.g., giving examples in pounds rather than dollars), it is nonetheless an excellent practical source for information relevant to IEP administration. It includes sections on organizations, staff selection and development, curricular development and innovation, marketing, and three chapters on finance and budgets. Each section includes many concrete examples, questionnaires, models, etc. which can be used to help apply the ideas to an actual program. This is a valuable reference for IEP administration.

ALSO OF INTEREST

Adams-Davis, J., & Hamrick, J. (1995). "Where does the money go? Comparing IEP administrative costs." Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages Convention Program, 332. [An audiorecording of this session is available from TESOL.]

Return to Table of Contents

COMPUTERS IN ESL

Chan, M. (1996). "No talking, please, just chatting: Collaborative writing with computers." Paper contributed to the TCC Online Conference. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 415 836).

Technical difficulties (missing text, faint transcriptions) detract from the value of the paper, which is, to a degree, a software promotion. Description of a few assignments and some general student reactions to the approach do not greatly redeem the paper. Of limited value.

Northwest Regional Literacy Resource Center. (1994). ESL Technology User's Guide. Seattle. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 379 952).

Reviews a variety of media products (software, video tapes, audio tapes, on-line systems, miscellaneous) on a 4.0 scale. Provides a quick-check listing of products with rating, media type, curriculum area, publisher, and price, followed by an annotated listing, with description, strengths and weaknesses. Also contains a listing of publishers and a briefly annotated listing of periodicals and other resources. A valuable guide to order in the current version.

Warschauer, Mark. (1995). E-mail for English teaching: Bringing the internet and computer learning networks into the language classroom. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.

A resource packed with information and ideas for using electronic communication media, for both novice and experienced users. Includes chapters on teacher collaboration through e-mail, use of e-mail by students and teacher in a single classroom, use of e-mail for cross-cultural exchange, applications in distance education (including a program for foreign students preparing to attend a U.S. institution), and a (somewhat dated) chapter on the internet. Includes an excellent bibliography and resource lists.

Return to Table of Contents

CURRICULUM DESIGN, TESTING, AND PLACEMENT

Atkinson, D., & Ramanathan, V. (1995). "Cultures of writing: An ethnographic comparison of L1 and L2 university writing/language programs." TESOL Quarterly, 29, 539-568.

Details a study that investigated academic writing instruction in one institution's ESL program and its freshman composition program. The findings clearly indicate the necessity for communication between such programs as to what is valued in writing, since students may be being presented with two very different sets of expectations. The article also recommends that freshman composition programs examine their cultural assumptions regarding non-native speakers. A thought-provoking article for curriculum developers in both camps.

Bosher, S. (1992). Developing a writing curriculum for academically underprepared college ESL students. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 352 843).

Describes a three-course writing sequence designed for academically underprepared students in a university setting, bringing them from personal narrative to academic writing. May be somewhat unrealistic in its expectations of students' potential for metacognitive growth.

Fatt, J. P. T. (1991). "Achieving communicative competence: The role of higher education." Higher Education, 22, 43-62.

Insists that possessing linguistic competence in English is not adequate for graduates of higher education, as that may not prepare them for the expectations of business and industry. Proposes a course syllabus which specifies realistic business-world tasks to be performed along with activities which encourage student communication in real-life ways. Specifies the methodology used to evaluate the course. The article lacks generalizability except in the most global way: that language skills should be taught through realistic, content-laden activities.

Galvan, J. L., & Kamhi-Stein, L. (1996). "A proposed ESL program for California State University, Los Angeles." A discussion paper based on meetings during 1995-1996 of the ESL Advisory Committee. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 407 842).

Proposal for a set of ESL courses and the structure to support them: identification and placement, curriculum, course structures. Examines the existing situation at California State University at Los Angeles: writing requirements, existing services. Appendices include charts of proposed course content. Though the discussion is necessarily focused on CSLA, the proposal provides a framework for considering needs and directions for new or established programs.

Hudson, T. (1991). "A content comprehension approach to reading English for science and technology." TESOL Quarterly, 25, 77-104.

Takes a cautiously supportive position relative to a content comprehension approach to teaching reading skills needed for success in professional-level chemical engineering courses. Contains a thorough and thoughtful review of the literature and philosophical rationale for the chosen approach. Particularly useful might be the figures and discussion of the instructional materials chosen for the program. Article resists taking too strong a stand on the implications and generalizability of the findings.

Johns, A. M., & Dudley-Evans, T. (1991). "English for specific purposes: International in scope, specific in purpose." TESOL Quarterly, 25, 297-314.

For an administrator considering the focus of the courses taught in her program. Examines just what ESP is and what sets it apart from other English teaching, notably assessment of student needs and analysis of discourse in the target field (to inform curriculum development). Considers some current issues in the field, including the need for empirical studies of effectiveness, appropriate degree of specificity in courses, and methodology. Finally, suggests areas of need, both internationally and in the U.S.

Kroll, B. (1990). "The rhetoric/syntax split: Designing a curriculum for ESL students." Journal of Basic Writing, 9(1), 40-55.

Argues for initial testing which provides separate assessment of rhetoric and syntax. Proposes a sequence of courses be prescribed according to the individual student's needs, beginning with the rhetoric course, if needed, and continuing through the syntax courses after that, as needed. Includes a useful, detailed scoring guide for organization and coherence features in ESL student essays.

Nero, S. J. (1995). "Not quite ESL: Teaching English to speakers of other Englishes." Paper presented at CCCC. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 387 814).

Begins with a basic lesson on creoles, then argues for an English as a Second Dialect (ESD) program for students from English-based creole-language backgrounds, as opposed to placement in ESL or pure mainstream settings. Surveys typical Caribbean creole features and indicates which are most likely to survive into students' written work. Also examines some psychological factors and their specific implications for students' writing. A useful, thought-provoking discussion for teachers confronting this issue.

Pennington, M. C., & Brown, J. D. (1991). "Unifying curriculum process and curriculum outcomes: The key to excellence in language education." In M. C. Pennington (Ed.), Building better English language programs: Perspectives on evaluation in ESL (pp. 57-74). Washington, D.C.: NAFSA: Association of International Educators

Builds a curriculum design model around a realistic needs assessment, specification of explicit goals and objectives, selection of testing processes and teaching materials, devising of the most effective teaching methods, and an evaluation stage that feeds back into the process. Outcomes of this model are unity of purpose in participants, consistency in standards, stability in the instructional program, and effectiveness for the students. The model in which this chapter is based seems somewhat gratuitous: points to be made did not need the vehicle of the graphic, and the approach that entailed, to communicate themselves.

Rosenthal, J. W. (1992). "A successful transition: A bridge program between ESL and the mainstream classroom." College Teaching, 40, 63-66.

Describes a program wherein mainstream faculty teaching lower division courses are recruited for a faculty development program of sorts, centered in raising consciousness of ESL issues and LEP student needs. A limited number of seats, then, are reserved in these faculty members' introductory classes for qualifying LEP students. The article includes a short list of articles (1989, 1991) distributed as recommended reading to participants. It also describes a video produced at Kean College of New Jersey featuring the thoughts of selected LEP students as to how faculty can best assist them in learning. Readable and thought-provoking.

Shih, M. (1992). "Beyond comprehension exercises in the ESL academic reading class." TESOL Quarterly, 26, 289-318.

An extensive discussion of academic text-processing skills, examining various types of texts likely to be encountered in college settings and strategies to be used in processing material for various expected testing methods. Recommends a classroom procedure that begins with explanation and teacher modeling, moves to guided practice, and culminates in independent practice on materials similar to the ones students will have to master in their academic courses. The thorough nature of the discussion, focusing on the unique needs of the ESOL student, and the extensive list of references make this article most valuable for the ESOL reading instruction planner.

Short, D. J. (1993). "Assessing integrated language and content instruction." TESOL Quarterly, 27, 627-656.

Short considers some of the essential issues in assessing student progress in ESOL classrooms which teach content as well. She advocates using a collection of alternative assessment tools so that issues of language proficiency and content-area knowledge can be separated. Stressing that objectives must be determined before instruction begins so that appropriate assessment methods can be chosen and so that students can know the goal and participate in the assessment process, she discusses the types of skills that should be measured and some kinds of measures that can be used, examining advantages and disadvantages of these various measures. The article's depth makes it most useful for those interested in developing alternative methods of assessing student performance, methods that accommodate student learning styles and separate language proficiency from content-area knowledge.

Spaventa, L. J., & Williamson, J. S. (1991). "Participatory placement: A case study." In M. C. Pennington (Ed.), Building better English language programs: Perspectives on evaluation in ESL (pp. 75-97). Washington, D.C.: NAFSA: Association of International Educators

Outlines a traditional placement system and illustrates its shortcomings in an actual language program. Then introduces the plan that worked for the program, one that involved both teachers and students in the placement process, and that produced more satisfactory placements more efficiently. While another program might not follow this precise model for placement testing, the discussion should stimulate thinking about the effectiveness of placement methods now in use. Appends some sample tests.

Winskowski-Jackson, C. (1991). "Evaluation of Culture Components in ESL Programs." In M. C. Pennington (Ed.), Building better English language programs: Perspectives on evaluation in ESL (pp. 98-117). Washington, D.C.: NAFSA: Association of International Educators

Reminds that growing up in a culture does not qualify one for teaching it. Indicates six areas that deserve attention: conversational conventions, North American history, contemporary anthropology/popular culture, religion/spirituality, the American national personality, and ethnosemantics and pragmatics. Suggests elements to be included in an orientation, as well as content and materials for culture courses and for language skills courses. Concludes with a timeline for evaluating the effectiveness of the program in student terms. Chapter contains a great deal of information for directing the intentional inclusion of specific cultural aspects into a language program.

Wrigley, H. S., Chisman, F. P., & Ewen, D. T. (1993). "Sparks of excellence: Program realities and promising practices in adult ESL." A report on an investigation of English as a Second Language service for adults by The Southport Institute for Policy Analysis. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 373 586).

Though targeted at adult ESL programs, the report contains a very useful discussion of testing and assessment and of specific assessment instruments applicable also to IEPs. The personnel section also touches on some issues common to IEPs.

Young, R. (1990). "A systems approach to curriculum innovation in intensive English programs." Paper presented at the 24th Annual TESOL Convention. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 317 068).

Describes the forces that contributed to initiation of curriculum renewal at the University of Pennsylvania. Then presents the approach taken to the curriculum, based on new knowledge in the field and on an understanding of the current student population and their needs and wants. Includes course descriptions for elective courses of three kinds: academic skills courses, general skills courses, and special subject or content courses. Also includes a sample objectives-based curriculum for a course in writing the research paper. Parts of the paper are well worth reading; parts are overly basic given the small contribution they make to the overall point.

Return to Table of Contents

INSTITUTIONAL LINKAGES

Bolton, J. K. (1990). Revitalization of the ESL program on the Rockville campus of Montgomery College, and the matter of credit for ESL courses. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 358 895).

Addresses the issue of institutional credit for EN 101-level ESL courses in a community college. Surveys the ESL-for-credit climate in the area, as well as providing a review of the literature relating to both higher education and institute-type programs. Clearly the discussion arises from a local political battle, but points raised are carefully handled and worthwhile reading for administrators considering the issue.

Christison, M. A. (1997). "The L2 student advocate." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.) A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 143-159). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center Publishers.

Discusses the role of language program administrator as classroom advocate and provides seven specific instances in which misunderstanding may arise between a non-native student and a faculty member. Suggests a course of mediation for the administrator to follow. Discussing the role of program administrator as cultural advocate, Christison offers a list of difficulties the student might face and a model of intercultural communication that encourages faculty to examine their assumptions. Contains a wealth of solid, usable suggestions for serving as language advocate and academic advocate, both with students and with faculty. A chapter to be studied.

Gantzer, J. (1991). "Issues in ESL: Putting ESL in its place." College ESL, 1(2), 21-27.

Considers the advantages and drawbacks of a number of possible loci for ESL programs within a college's institutional structure, including a freestanding department. Includes Gantzer's analysis and four responses. Important reading.

Jenks, F. L. (1997). "The quest for academic legitimacy: Building for language program entry into institutional and community infrastructures." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.) A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 107-121). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center Publishers.

Argues that IEPs must earn a respected place in their host institutions by making themselves valuable and contributing members: by seeking outside sources of funding from governmental and private entities, by providing language instruction for regularly admitted non-native speakers, and by serving as a resource for other departments and programs on campus and for individual native-speaking students. Examines as well the highly recognized "hurdles to legitimacy" of low faculty status and lack of academic credit for courses. Reminds the program administrator of the value of good public relations. Important reading for the perspective taken: that IEPs must act like full partners in education if they hope to be treated as such.

Murdock, R. S. (1997). "Outreach on and off campus." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.) A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 161-174). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center Publishers.

Fleshes out a number of concrete suggestions for becoming an integral, valuable part of the host institution's academic life. Additionally, provides numerous suggestions for non-academic linkages on campus (e.g., encouraging the housing office to create a list of students who want international roommates). Notes that the IEP can serve as a source of language services and cross-cultural assistance to the community. A must for program administrators.

Potts, J. D. (1992). International students at Fort Hays State University: An impact analysis. NAFSA Working Paper #36. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 356 709).

A thorough examination of the impact of international students at FHSU and in the Hays area, the document could serve as a model for the kind of report which can be useful in justifying the existence of a university-affiliated IEP. Document also considers related issues in need of attention. Worthwhile background reading when preparing for a self-study or strategic plan.

Stoller, F. L., & Christison, M. A. (1994). "Challenges for IEP administrators: Liason with senior-level administrators and faculty development." TESOL Journal, 3(3), 16-20.

Offers a number of concrete suggestions for IEP administrators with regard to relationships with higher-level decision makers in the institution. Also presents several recommendations for fostering professional growth in faculty. In lieu of lengthy discussion, the article provides thought-provoking examples and encourages a positive, supportive leadership position on the part of the administrator.

Young, C., & Powers, J. (1995). "Helping faculty work with international writers across the disciplines." Paper presented at the annual meeting of TESOL. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 393 314).

A very readable, very useful description of a workshop created by Writing Center personnel for faculty who work with ESL students. Includes discussion of workshop development phase.

Return to Table of Contents

LEADERSHIP

Blaber, M. E. (1997). "Gender issues for the language program administrator." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 297-300). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center.

Blaber presents six principles for IEP administrators relating to gender issues: understand gender differences in communication and managerial styles; discover your managerial style; balance your personal and professional lives; find mentors; understand your institution's culture and battle sexual discrimination; and become political. Blaber also provides an annotated bibliography of gender issues. Unfortunately, this paper is fairly superficial, and not all the issues are relevant to gender.

Brown, J. D., & Pennington, M. C. (1991). "Developing effective evaluation systems for language programs." In M. C. Pennington (Ed.), Building better English language programs (pp. 3-18). Washington, DC: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.

Brown and Pennington provide an overview for IEP evaluation and describe some of the methods which may be used. They describe the role of the program administrator as well as recommendations for conditions for successful evaluation. This chapter is a good starting point but is fairly general.

Brown, K. (1997). "Leadership." In Foundations of international education: ESL program administration PDP Participant Manual, NAFSA: Association of International Educators (Section One). Washington, DC: Author.

In this section of the manual for participants in NAFSA's Professional Development Program workshop, Brown presents some models of learning styles and trainer types, and a bibliography. This is fairly spartan.

Carkin, S. (1997). "Language program leadership as intercultural management." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 49-60). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center.

Just as non-native speakers of English may be marginalized in higher education institutions, Carkin proposes that IEPs are likewise marginalized, through different academic roles, status, and even location. She suggests that a major role of IEP administrators is to understand university hierarchies and establish connections to "negotiate across boundaries" in order to decrease IEP marginalization. She presents maxims about intercultural communication and advice on applying them to "interdiscourse" across university institutional communities, and concludes with specific suggestions on ways to increase the IEP's integration with the rest of the university. This is a thought-provoking chapter with a lot of good ideas about specific ways in which to decrease IEP marginalization.

Christison, M. A., & Stoller, F. L. (1997). "Time management principles for language program administrators." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 235-250). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center.

Christison and Stoller present practical techniques for improving IEP administrators' use of time. They include appendices with questionnaires to determine actual and desired time management, and organize their presentation around the guiding maxim that one's values and how one uses time must be connected. They offer reasons for better organizing one's time, and lay out a plan for successful time management plus a series of tips on how to maximize one's time. Their presentation is down-to-earth and motivational, although it is by no means unique to IEP administrators; their suggestions are basic and broad enough to apply to anyone.

Constantinides, J. C. (1997). "International teaching assistant training principles for the language program administrator.." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 305-308). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center.

Constantinides offers six important principles for IEPs that train international teaching assistants: these programs can involve inter-institutional power struggles; they may require specialized classes beyond the level typically offered at an IEP; the program should include sociolinguistic expertise training; the program should include pedagogical and cross-cultural training; and the teachers of such a course require additional qualifications. While brief and necessarily superficial, this article provides a starting point for IEP administrators who want to investigate such a program.

Davidson, J. O., & Tesh, J. S. (1997). "Theory and practice in language program organization design." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 177-197). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center.

Davidson and Tesh describe two different visions of IEP superstructure and suggest that the administrator's leadership is vital both in determining how the models fit the program and in its day-to-day implementation. The authors describe what "optimal language program organization design" might imply for record-keeping, running meetings, establishing committees, undergoing self-study, and improving communication. They recommend that program efficiency and morale will increase with greater faculty participation and input into decision-making.

Edwards, D. D. (1991). A survey of selected intensive English programs on campuses of higher education. Research paper for Master of Education, Texas A&M University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 344 455)

Edwards reports on the results of a survey of IEPs in Texas and South Carolina, demonstrating the variety inherent in IEPs. Her data include information on a host of descriptive elements of the IEPs as well as attitudinal questions on areas for improvement and "ideal" roles. She includes the data and questionnaire, but summarizes the results and presents them in narrative form. For administrators interested in comparative data, this study is a useful resource, with quite a lot of specific information.

Fox, R. P. (1991). "Evaluating the ESL program director." In M. C. Pennington (Ed.), Building better English language programs (pp. 228-240). Washington, DC: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.

This article is useful in defining the successful program director's essential qualities, skills and characteristics from several vantages. Additionally, he offers advice on how to undertake an evaluation of the program director. The ideas he presents are useful for people interested in considering whether they would be interested and successful in this position, and also allows current administrators an opportunity for reflection on their practice and person.

Gawienowski, M. F. (1995). A bibliography of sources for intensive English program administration. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 382 007)

This briefly-annotated bibliography, also published in volumes 12 and 13 of the Intensive English Programs Newsletter, includes over one hundred references for a diverse array of topics relevant to IEP administration and evaluation. This is an excellent source for finding both recent and "classic" articles and presentations on a multitude of IEP issues.

Henry, A. R. (1997). "The decision maker and negotiator." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp.77-90). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center.

In this chapter Henry outlines the role of the IEP administrator in negotiating and making decisions. She characterizes IEP atmospheres and culture as typically different from those of the host institution, which often leads to misunderstandings and conflict. She leads the reader through six major challenges faced by program administrators in this realm. These include deciding the scope of decisions and negotiations; the processes of decision-making; distinguishing when to negotiate and when to decide; considerations of time; crisis and conflict management; and the administrator as servant-leader. Henry ends with a list of ten concrete suggestions for improving and increasing confidence in program administrators' decision-making and negotiating skills. This chapter is useful not just for IEP administrators but for leaders of a variety of organizations.

Hussein, A. A. (1995, March). "Preparation for administration of English as a second language programs." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Teachers of English as a Second Language Association. Long Beach, CA. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 392 258)

Hussein reports on the scarcity of training programs for administration of ESL, and argues for the need to increase the availability of this training, especially with regards to hands-on training and internships. While this does not directly target IEP administration, many of its points are relevant. This paper includes a good review of the literature, as well as survey results from several institutions.

Impey, G., & Underhill, N. (1994). The ELT manager's handbook. London: Heinemann.

Impey and Underhill discuss management with a specific focus on issues which will likely be helpful to IEP administrators. They include chapters on determining mission, managing people, marketing and promotion, and managing money. See Lynn (1996) for a review of this book.

Levitov, P. S. (1997). "Immigration principles for the language program administrator." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 301-303). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center.

Levitov summarizes five principles relevant to immigration issues for IEP administrators: learn the basic terminology; be aware of the INS's perspective; develop a broad understanding of common regulations; consult regularly with the international student advisor; and be aware of the consequences of noncompliance with immigration regulations. Levitov includes an annotated bibiliography of further, more explicit sources. This article is fairly superficial, but provides a quick overview of the sorts of things a (new) IEP administrator should be aware of.

Lynn, R. (1996). The ELT manager's handbook [Review of the book The ELT manager's handbook]. ELT Journal , 50(1), 85-87.

Lynn reviews Impey & Underhill's (1994) book, and describes in some detail what it covers and what it lacks. She suggests that it provides a good overeview but is not sufficient for most managers.

Matthies, B. F. (1991). Administrative evaluation in ESL programs: "How'm I doin?". In M. C. Pennington (Ed.), Building better English language programs (pp. 241-256). Washington, DC: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.

Rather than describe how administrators should be evaluated, Matthies instead provides a rationale and explanation for the importance of such an evaluation. Additionally, she offers an overview for how the role of program director fits in with the staff, students, institution, etc.

Osburne, A. G. (1992). Situational leadership and innovation in the ESOL classroom. Journal of Intensive English Studies, 6, 51-60.

Osburne describes and gives examples for situational leadership based on leadership style, which is determined by interaction between the classroom environment and the leader's directive and supportive behavior. This article would be useful both for teachers and for administrators interested in how leadership style affects the adoption of innovation in an IEP.

Pennington, M. C. (Ed.). Building better English language programs. Washington, DC: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.

This edited volume is helpful for all program administrators, especially but not exclusively when they wish to undertake program evaluation. The book's twelve chapters discuss different approaches (theoretical and practical) to evaluation, describe how to evaluate curriculum, student services, promotional materials, faculty, and administrators.

Rawley, L. A. (1997). "The language program administrator and policy formation at institutions of higher learning." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 91-103). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center.

Rawley reports the results of a multi-site case study investigating how IEP administrators view their roles in institutional policy making. She describes IEPs at two research universities and two community colleges. In each case, IEP directors felt that their host educational institutions did not have effective or explicit policies regarding international students; all felt disenfranchised, yet all also created opportunities to shape policy. Important aspects for doing so included becoming familiar with institutional processes; attempting to negotiate within the system; using personal relationships with others in power; and educating institutional personnel about ESL and IEPs. This chapter is primarily valuable for its descriptions of features and similarities in the IEPs studied, rather than for suggesting techniques, strategies or goals for policy formation.

Staczek, J. J. (1991). "Professional development and program administration." TESOL Journal, 1(1), 21-22, 27-28.

Staczek argues for the need for specific training programs for IEP faculty and administrators. He discusses the "culture of professionals" in an IEP, the important roles of IEP faculty members, the need for training, and the need for research into IEP administration. The editor has added a list of eight useful questions for self-reflection and self-evaluation to assess one's preparation for IEP administration. This article is very useful for thinking about what an IEP administrator needs to know how to do.

Stoller, F. L. (1994). "The diffusion of innovations in intensive ESL programs." Applied Linguistics, 15(3), 300-327.

Stoller reports on survey and case study data from 43 IEPs addressing what factors or attributes facilitate innovation. She uses factor analysis to reveal the three primary "paths to innovation." This article provides an example of the sort of academic research which can be done with IEPs, but is probably too theoretical for most administrators to want to read it in its entirety.

Stoller, F. L. (1994). "Change is inevitable, but innovation is desirable in intensive English programs." TESOL Matters, 4(4), 9.

Stoller summarizes the insights gained from her studies into innovation in IEPs, and describes the role that faculty, administrative leadership, attitudes, and institutional relations play in advancing or hindering innovation. This is a good summary of essentially the same material Stoller covers in more depth in other publications.

Stoller, F. L. (1995). "Innovation in a non-traditional academic unit: The intensive English program." Innovative Higher Education, 19(3), 177-195.

Though written primarily for a different audience than that of IEP administrators, this article, which also uses Stoller's survey and case study data from 43 IEPs, argues for the important leadership role of the administrator in fostering innovation.

Stoller, F. L. (1997). "The catalyst for change and innovation." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 33-48). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center.

In this chapter Stoller makes a compelling case for the importance of the language program administrator serving as a source for innovation. She characterizes innovation as deliberate effort to bring about improvement which can be spread throughout the program, as opposed to simple change. Stoller discusses reasons why innovation may be inspired, from sources both internal and external to the organization, and considers factors which stimulate or hinder innovation and its subsequent diffusion through the IEP. This chapter is well written and motivational, and sends a message which can and should be applied in contexts broader than only IEPs.

Stoynoff, S. (1993). "Ethics and intensive English programs." TESOL Journal, 2(3), 4-6.

Stoynoff describes ethical dilemmas possible for IEP directors, specifically discussing issues of confidentiality of information, maintaining personal and professional integrity (including in the IEP's publicity and recruiting), and conflicts between professional standards and sponsor wishes. This is a good "thought" piece.

White, R., Martin, M., Stimson, M., & Hodge, R. (1991). Management in English language teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press.

While this volume is geared toward British programs (e.g., giving examples in pounds rather than dollars), it is nonetheless an excellent practical source for information relevant to IEP administration. It includes sections on organizations, staff selection and development, curricular development and innovation, marketing, and finance and budgets. Each section includes many concrete examples, questionnaires, models, etc. which can be used to help apply the ideas to an actual program. This is a valuable reference for IEP administration.

Witbeck, M., & Healey, D. (1997). "Technology and the language program administrator." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 253-273). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center.

Witbeck and Healey offer quite a lot of good ideas, advice, and considerations on the role of technology in an IEP. One of their main points is that technological changes constantly create a revision of the definition of what IEPs and their teachers and administrators are and do, and that the administrator's job is to manage this innovation. They discuss the role of teachers as facilitators and the importance of understanding teaching technology; both office automation and instructional technology are considered, as are concerns for budgeting for technology and using local resources. Communication technologies such as synchronous communication, the internet, and email are discusses at length, with recommendations for how to integrate them into an IEP. This chapter is excellent and up-to-date, and provides a good point of embarkment for staff, administrators and instructors at all levels of technological competence.

ALSO OF INTEREST

Dussard, E., Francis, L. P., Harshbarger, W., Hind, J., & Juzkiw, I. (1995, April). "ESL program directors' roles and responsibilities: How they differ." Colloquium at the Annual Meeting of the Teachers of English as a Second Language Association. Long Beach, CA. [Audiorecording available from TESOL]

Pennington, M.C., & Xiao, Y. (1990). "Defining the job of the ESL program administrator: Results of a national survey." University of Hawaii Working Papers in ESL, 9(2), 1-30.

Pialorsi, F. (1994). Developing a course in language program administration. Journal of Intensive English Studies, 8, 87-91.

Return to Table of Contents

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT

Adams-Davis, J. (1997). "Section 2: Personnel." In NAFSA: Association of International Educators, Foundations of international education: ESL program administration. PDP Participant Manual. Washington, DC: Author.

In this section of the manual for participants in NAFSA's Professional Development Program workshop, Adams-Davis offers a compilation of information, such as job descriptions, administrative challenges, case study "critical incidents" in IEP personnel supervision, suggestions for supervisors, and sample forms relevant to employment and evaluation of faculty. This set of materials is useful in order to get a feel for how personnel supervision, hiring and evaluation is accomplished at several different IEPs.

Barnes, G. A. (1992, March). "A model for effective staff development." Paper presented at the international TESOL conference, Vancouver, B.C., Canada. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 347 829)

Barnes focuses on IEP staff development for three "layers" of staff: administrative, instructional, and support staff. He problematizes some assumptions about staff development, and presents different theoretical perspectives and models. This is a useful article for consideration of how staff development can and should be conceptualized.

Brown, J. D., & Pennington, M. C. (1991). "Developing effective evaluation systems for language programs." In M. C. Pennington (Ed.), Building better English language programs (pp. 3-18). Washington, DC: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.

Brown and Pennington provide an overview for IEP evaluation and describe some of the methods which may be used. They describe the role of the program administrator as well as recommendations for conditions for successful evaluation. They stress the importance of faculty and staff input into the evaluation process for its success.

Byrd, P. (1994). "Faculty involvement in defining and sustaining the mission and standing of IEPs in U.S. higher education." Journal of Intensive English Studies, 8, 27-35.

Byrd describes the importance of including faculty input in determining the curriculum, mission, and orientation of the IEP. This might provide program directors with another angle on personnel management issues.

California Department of Education. (1993). English as a second language: Implementing effective adult education programs. Sacramento: Author. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 369 303)

This is a training manual for ESL teachers in California, but the chapter on ESL management is also relevant to IEP management. It includes fairly general, common-sense information about staff selection and development, as well as scheduling, community outreach, and funding.

Davidson, J. O. (1994). "Boosting faculty/staff morale at a university-based intensive English program." Intensive English Program Newsletter, 11, 6-7.

Davidson describes factors which affect faculty and staff morale, focusing especially on extrinsic factors which lower morale, and offers suggestions for improving morale.

Davidson, J. O., & Tesh, J. S. (1997). "Theory and practice in language program organization design." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 177-197). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center.

Davidson and Tesh describe two different visions of IEP superstructure and suggest that the administrator's leadership is vital both in determining how the models fit the program and in its day-to-day implementation. The authors describe what "optimal language program organization design" might imply for record-keeping, running meetings, establishing committees, undergoing self-study, and improving communication. They recommend that program efficiency and morale will increase with greater faculty participation and input into decision-making.

Fox, L. (1995). "Proposed intensive English programs employment standards." Intensive English Programs Newsletter, 13(1), 1-3.

Fox reports on the recommendations prepared by the IEP subcommittee of the TESOL Employment Standards Task Force, outlining areas of concern for faculty (contracts, job security, etc.). While cursory, this article serves to point out some of the areas which often cause difficulties for IEP faculty, as well as recommendations for improving these difficulties.

Geddes, J. M., & Marks, D. R. (1997). "Personnel matters." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 199-218). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center.

Geddes and Marks provide an excellent overview of personnel management considerations in this chapter. They include issues of staffing, interviewing, supervision, evaluation, personnel change, and professional development. Each section includes a summative checklist, and the chapter includes a sample telephone reference-check questionnaire. The authors do a good job of providing a comprehensive overview of personnel matters, and often present more than one way to go about handling the issues raised. This is an excellent source on personnel management, especially for beginning administrators.

Jensen, C., & Soppelsa, E. F. (1996). "Strategies for research in intensive English programs." Journal of Intensive English Studies, 10, 1-17.

Jensen and Soppelsa describe two kinds of research often carried out by IEP faculty: that assigned by program administrators for investigating aspects of the program; and action research by teachers for improving practice.

Kutner, M. (1992). Staff development for ABE and ESL teachers and volunteers. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 353 862)

Kutner summarizes key elements for staff development, although the focus is not always on issues relevant to IEPs. Still, the basic principles are applicable, but are quite basic.

Osburne, A. G. (1992). "Situational leadership and innovation in the ESOL classroom." Journal of Intensive English Studies, 6, 51-60.

Osburne describes and gives examples for situational leadership based on leadership style, which is determined by interaction between the classroom environment and the leader's directive and supportive behavior. This article would be useful both for teachers and for administrators interested in how leadership style affects the adoption of innovation in an IEP.

Pennington, M. C., & Young, A. L. (1991). "Procedures and instruments for faculty evaluation in ESL." In M. C. Pennington (Ed.), Building better English language programs (pp. 191-205). Washington, DC: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.

Pennington and Young discuss the value of faculty evaluations for the "health" of the IEP. They provide examples (and actual samples in the appendices) of instruments for evaluating faculty, as well as recommendations for how to undertake the process. This is a useful start for administrators wondering about options and sample materials for faculty evaluation.

Snoke, J. M. (1994). "Report from Baltimore: Ethical issues for intensive English programs." Intensive English Programs Newsletter, 12(1), p. 3.

In this brief report Snoke describes topics discussed at an IEP discussion group at the Baltimore TESOL Conference, centering around IEP ethics. She notes that host institution control of IEP budgets negatively impacts IEP personnel hiring, management and morale. This article is quite short but summarizes some important concerns for IEP directors and staff.

Soppelsa, E. F. (1997). "Empowerment of faculty." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 123-141). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center.

Soppelsa describes the importance of "empowering" IEP faculty, what it implies for the role of the program director, and what processes and strategies assist in achieving this empowerment. She suggests that empowerment strategies can both combat burnout and keep new faculty energized. This chapter is fairly motivational and has some good ideas.

Staczek, J. J. (1991). "Professional development and program administration." TESOL Journal, 1(1), 21-22, 27-28.

Staczek argues for the need for specific training programs for IEP faculty and administrators. He discusses the "culture of professionals" in an IEP, the important roles of IEP faculty members, the need for faculty training, and the need for research into IEP administration. The editor has added a list of eight useful questions for self-reflection and self-evaluation to assess one's preparation for IEP administration. This article is very useful for thinking about what an IEP administrator needs to know how to do.

Stoller, F. L., & Christison, M. A. (1994). "Challenges for IEP administrators: Liason with senior-level administrators and faculty development." TESOL Journal, 3(3), 16-20.

Offers a number of concrete suggestions for IEP administrators with regard to relationships with higher-level decision makers in the institution. Also presents several recommendations for fostering professional growth in faculty. In lieu of lengthy discussion, the article provides thought-provoking examples and encourages a positive, supportive leadership position on the part of the administrator.

White, R., Martin, M., Stimson, M., & Hodge, R. (1991). Management in English language teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press.

While this volume is geared toward British programs (e.g., giving examples in pounds rather than dollars), it is nonetheless an excellent practical source for information relevant to IEP administration. It includes sections on organizations, staff selection and development, curricular development and innovation, marketing, and finance and budgets. Each section includes many concrete examples, questionnaires, models, etc. which can be used to help apply the ideas to an actual program. This is a valuable reference for IEP administration.

Wrigley, H. S., Chisman, F. P., & Ewen, D. T. (1993). "Sparks of excellence: Program realities and promising practices in adult ESL." A report on an investigation of English as a Second Language service for adults by The Southport Institute for Policy Analysis. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 373 586).

Though targeted at adult ESL programs, the report contains a very useful discussion of testing and assessment and of specific assessment instruments applicable also to IEPs. The personnel section also touches on some issues common to IEPs.

ALSO OF INTEREST

Curry, K. G. (1995, April). Building your program's future through faculty portfolios. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Teachers of English as a Second Language Association. Long Beach, CA.

Henninger-Chiang, T., Marcelino, D., Murphy, J., & Soghikian, S. (1995). "From hiring to firing: The program administrator's dilemma." Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages Convention Program, 229. [An audiorecording of this session is available from TESOL]

Morley, J. (1993). "The challenges and rewards of being an ESOL professional." TESOL Matters, 3, 18.

Pennington, M. C. (1991). "Work satisfaction and the ESL profession." Language, Culture and Curriculum, 4(1), 59-86.

Stoller, F. L. (1996). "Teacher supervision: Moving towards an interactive approach." English Teaching Forum, 34(2), 2-9.

Return to Table of Contents

PUBLICITY/MARKETING/ RECRUITMENT

California Department of Education. (1993). English as a second language: Implementing effective adult education programs. Sacramento: Author. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 369 303)

This is a training manual for ESL teachers in California, but the chapter on ESL management is also relevant to IEP management. It includes some information on community outreach (with a checklist in Appendix B), as well as promotional ideas in Appendix C which would be useful for local community outreach programs (but not useful for most international programming).

Woolston, V. (1995). "International students: Leveraging learning." New Directions for Student Services: Student Services for the Changing Graduate Student Population, 72, 81-89.

Surveys a number of issues relevant to international students, including recruitment and the need to mainstream these students rather than providing dedicated services whenever possible. Though explicitly about the graduate student population, the article may provide some useful direction in recruitment and in provision of student services.

Return to Table of Contents

STRATEGIC PLANNING

Benesch, S., & Block, E. (1995). "Issues in ESL: The cost of public education." College ESL 5(1), 47-51.

Benesch and Block's examination of proportions of CUNY students who are ESL (whether or not they require remediation of any kind) and of cumulative grade point averages of these students, compiled as a result of expected spending cuts, serves as a reminder of the centrality of these students in American higher education and of the residence status of a great many of these students. Such periodic assessments are important components of justifying our existence as IEPs to those we answer to.

Byrd, P., & Constantinides, J. C. (1991). "Self-study and self-regulation for ESL programs: Issues arising from the associational approach." In M. C. Pennington (Ed.), Building better English language programs: Perspectives on evaluation in ESL (pp. 19-35). Washington, D.C.: NAFSA: Association of International Educators

Surveys the history of self-study and accreditation for IEPs, indicating that though such a step is not required, it can be quite beneficial, both directly, in the lessons it reveals, and indirectly, in the professional capital it generates for the program willing to examine itself. Considers the climate in which the self-study might take place, indicating situations in which it might be wiser to postpone doing a self-study. Informative and useful.

Eskey, D. E., Lacy, R., & Kraft, C. A. (1991). "A novel approach to ESL program evaluation." In M. C. Pennington (Ed.), Building better English language programs: Perspectives on evaluation in ESL (pp. 36-53). Washington, D.C.: NAFSA: Association of International Educators

Argues that program evaluation must be provided by all users of the program, not just by the program's students and faculty, and that measures employed must be valid. Details a study of program effectiveness which compares former IEP students with other former IEP students (both successful and unsuccessful) and with regularly-admitted students on measure of GPA and institutional success. Adequate information provided for other programs to duplicate the self-assessment.

Henrichsen, L. (1994). "Conducting an ESL program self-study: 20 lessons from experience." TESOL Journal, 3(4), 8-13.

Though brief (one to three paragraphs each), the discussions of lessons learned in BYU-Hawaii's ELI self-study would be useful to any ESL program contemplating conducting a self-study.

Klinghammer, S. J. (1997). "The strategic planner." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.) A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 61-76). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center Publishers.

Examines in quite useful detail the strategic planning process for IEPs, beginning with a lengthy discussion of the development process and discussing necessary conditions in the implementation stage. The inclusion of a case study provides landmarks by which to consider the process. Concludes with a thought-provoking discussion of the role of the program administrator and some comments on potential "roadblocks." Perhaps the most thorough and valuable discussion of the subject.

Lynch, B. K. (1990). "A context-adaptive model for program evaluation." TESOL Quarterly, 24, 23-42.

A model based on the program evaluation of the REST project (see Hudson, 1991) at the University of Guadalajara. The model seems insufficiently dedicated to its associated area of instruction to warrant its inclusion in a publication in the field. Additionally, though various quantitative analyses are suggested and discussed, the discussion is both too brief and too lengthy: a statistics handbook would be more useful. See Meinke (1990) for two commentaries and Lynch's response.

Meinke, M. W. (1990). "Two commentaries on Brian K. Lynch's 'A context-adaptive model of program evaluation'". TESOL Quarterly, 24, 759-767.

Meinke faults Lynch for failing to take into account all the work already done in program evaluation methodology. Swales concurs and complains also that the model proposed by Lynch is too restrictive and internally focused. Lynch's response is that Swales' reading of the model is too restrictive; he also asserts that the evaluation model is intentionally freshly created so that the evaluators could see what was to be seen rather than what others' constructs might lead them to see.

Potts, J. D. (1992). "International students at Fort Hays State University: An impact analysis." NAFSA Working Paper #36. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 356 709).

A thorough examination of the impact of international students at FHSU and in the Hays area, the document could serve as a model for the kind of report which can be useful in justifying the existence of a university-affiliated IEP. Document also considers related issues in need of attention. Worthwhile background reading when preparing for a self-study or strategic plan.

Return to Table of Contents

STUDENT SERVICES

Christison, M. A. (1997). "The L2 student advocate." In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.) A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 143-159). Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Center Publishers.

Discusses the role of language program administrator as classroom advocate and provides seven specific instances in which misunderstanding may arise between a non-native student and a faculty member. Suggests a course of mediation for the administrator to follow. Discussing the role of program administrator as cultural advocate, Christison offers a list of difficulties the student might face and a model of intercultural communication that encourages faculty to examine their assumptions. Contains a wealth of solid, usable suggestions for serving as language advocate and academic advocate, both with students and with faculty. A chapter to be studied.

Clark Oropeza, B. A., Fitzgibbon, M., & Baron, A., Jr. (1991). "Managing mental health crises of foreign college students." Journal of Counseling & Development, 69, 280-284.

Valuable assessment of stressors experienced by foreign college students. Surveys some of the difficulties inherent in working with international students experiencing psychiatric crises: appropriate diagnosis, considering differences in cultures; issues of confidentiality and privileged communication; issues of availability of treatment in the student's home country. An important article for student services personnel.

Johnson, K. A. (1993). "Q-methodology: Perceptions of international student services in higher education." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 363 550).

Contains a most useful review of the literature regarding international student adjustment and utilization of student services, including the predictive value of needs surveys. Describes the methodology of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward and use of student services. The results should be taken with a grain of salt since they were drawn from only 17 subjects, but they indicate a division of international students into three groupings according to attitude and use. Though no clear suggestion is made of what to do with these results, the article is worth reading for the perspective it takes on student services and for the literature review. The survey questions are appended.

Quintrell, N., & Westwood, M. (1994). "The influence of a peer-pairing program on international students' first year experience and use of student services." Higher Education Research and Development, 13, 49-57.

When international college freshmen were matched with trained volunteer host nationals, with whom they met twice a month during their freshman year, the international students who participated in the study were reported to tend toward having a more positive attitude toward that year's experience than did non-participants. Participants used certain student services significantly more than did non-participants. One of these services, notably, was the Language and Learning Unit, and participants perceived themselves to have improved significantly in their English skills at a much higher rate than did non-participants. The study reports no significant difference in academic performance between participants and a well-matched group of non-participants. However, the raw figures seem to indicate better performance on the part of non-participants. For the gains in adjustment likely to occur with increased use of student support services, the program appears to be a valuable one; furthermore, the article would be helpful in constructing a similar program and in assessing its effectiveness.

Woolston, V. (1995). "International students: Leveraging learning." New Directions for Student Services: Student Services for the Changing Graduate Student Population, 72, 81-89.

Surveys a number of issues relevant to international students, including recruitment and the need to mainstream these students rather than providing dedicated services whenever possible. Though explicitly about the graduate student population, the article may provide some useful direction in recruitment and in provision of student services.

Return to Table of Contents


Last revised: October 6, 2000
URL: http://www.temple.edu/~mjmiller/personal/annotbib.htm