Required Texts

David Berger, ed., History and Hate: The Dimensions of Anti-Semitism (Jewish Publication Society)
Leonard Dinnerstein, Anti-Semitism in America (Oxford)
David Engel, The Holocaust: The Third Reich and the Jews (Longman)
Albert S. Lindemann, Anti-Semitism before the Holocaust (Longman)
Michael R. Marrus, The Holocaust in History (Meridian/Penguin)
Donald L. Niewyk, ed., The Holocaust: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation (Houghton Mifflin) (2nd ed.)
Course Pack (articles and documents) (CP)

Course Requirements

All required readings listed in syllabus
Regular class attendance and participation
Reaction journals for topics marked with "*" (6 required)
Class trip to Holocaust Museum in Washington, Sunday, April 1
Papers: Three short (4-6 page) papers: 1) a comparison of two Holocaust memoirs; 2) a book report on a history of the Holocaust; and 3) evaluation of visit to Holocaust Museum (or comparison of Holocaust films)
Due dates: 1) March 13; 2) March 29; & 3) April 12
(Guidelines and selected bibliographies will be distributed in advance)
Examinations: Mid-term  (March 1) and Final (May 3)

Grading Policy

    Class participation       10%
    Journals                      15%
    Papers                        30% (10% per paper)
    Mid-term                    20%
    Final exam                  25%

Instructor: Dr. Harriet Freidenreich, Professor of History
   Office: Gladfelter 928
   Office hours: Tu/Th 10:15-11:30 & by appointment
   Telephone: 215-204-8928 (office); 215-736-2893 (home)



1) Introduction: The Holocaust and Racism; Are Jews a Race?
 Albert S. Lindemann, Anti-Semitism before the Holocaust, 1-12
David Berger, ed., History and Hate, 3-14
David Engel, The Holocaust: The Third Reich and the Jews, 1-13, 88-89
 Michael R. Marrus, The Holocaust in History, 1-7
 Donald L. Niewyk, ed., The Holocaust, 1-7
Helpful web links: What is Antisemitism?

2) Roots of Antisemitism: The Ancient World and Christianity
 Lindemann, 13-27, 104-107
Berger, 15-48
Helpful web links: Classical/Christian Antisemitism

3) *Constructing "The Jew": Jew-Hatred in the Medieval World
 Lindemann, 27-31, 107-8
Berger, 49-94
 Leonard Dinnerstein, Antisemitism in America, xix-xxviii
Rita Botwinick, "Prejudice and Anti-Semitism"; Milton Kleg, "Hate Prejudice and Racism" and Joel Carmichael "Satanizing the Jews" in Rita Steinhardt Botwinick, ed., A Holocaust Reader: From Ideology to Annihilation, 1-18 (xeroxed essays)(in Course Pack/CP)

4) *Modern Antisemitism and Jewish Responses: Europe
 Lindemann, 32-74, 108-118
 Berger, 95-114
Helpful web links: Modern Antisemitism
    The Protocols of the Elders of Zion

5) *Modern Antisemitism and Jewish Responses: America
 Lindemann, 111-112, 120-121
 Berger, 115-128
Dinnerstein, pp.3-127
Karen Brodkin Sacks, "How Did Jews Become White Folks?" in Steven Gregory and Roger Sanjek, eds., Race, pp.78-85 (xeroxed article) (CP)

6) *The Development of Nazi Antisemitism (to 1939)
 Lindemann, 75-103, 118-120
 Engel, 14-49, 89-94
 Marrus, 8-30
Documents on "The Holocaust" from Paul Mendes-Flohr & Jehuda Reinharz, eds., The Jew in the Modern World: A Documentary History, 2nd ed., 636-660 (CP)
Helpful web links: Nazi Rule (USHMMM); The Nazis (Museum of Tolerance)

7) *The Holocaust: The Perpetrators
 Engel, 50-61, 95-101, 110
 Marrus, 31-83
 Niewyck, 9-49 & 149-197
 Documents on "The Holocaust," 660-666; 684-690 (CP)
Helpful web links: Antisemitism and the Final Solution (Museum of Tolerance)
The 20th Century History Newsletter: The Holocaust

8) *The Victims: Men, Women and Children
 Marrus, 103-132
 Niewyck, 51-105
 Documents on "The Holocaust," 666-673 & 690-696 (CP)
Recommended: Carol Rittner & John K. Roth, eds. Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust (on reserve)
Helpful web links: The Jews (Museum of Tolerance)

9) *Resistance Fighters, Rescuers and Bystanders
 Engel, 62-80, 102-110
 Marrus, 84-107 & 133-183
 Niewyck, 107-147 & 199-291
 Documents on "The Holocaust," 673-684 (CP)
 Dinnerstein, 128-149
Helpful web links: Resistance and Rescue (Museum of Tolerance)The World Response; Righteous Among the Nations
The Righteous Among the Nations (Yad Vashem)

10) Remembering the Holocaust: Europe, America and Israel
 Engel, 81-87
 Marrus, 184-202
 Documents on "The Holocaust," 697-699 (CP)
 Dinnerstein, 150-174
James E. Young, "Introduction" to The Art of Memory: Holocaust Memorials in History, 19-38 (xeroxed essay) (CP)
Helpful web links: United States Holocaust Memoria Museum
Yad Vashem
After the War (Museum of Tolerance); And I Still See Their Faces: Images of Polish Jews
A Cybrary of the Holocaust
Antisemitism and the Holocaust
The Holocaust: A Tragic Legacy

11) Racism and Antisemitism in America: American Jews and African-Americans
 Dinnerstein, 175-227
 David M. Gordis, "Jews, Race and American Pluralism," Jews and Race in America, 33-38 (CP)
Lawrence Wright, "One Drop of Blood," The New Yorker (July 25, 1994)(xeroxed article) (CP)
Karen Brodkin Sacks, "How Did Jews Become White Folks?" 86-98 (xeroxed article) (CP)
Helpful web links:

12) The Post-World War II "Other": Racism, Anti-Zionism and Neo-Nazism
 Dinnerstein, 150-174, 228-250
Yehuda Bauer, "Antisemitism and Anti-Zionism - New and Old" from Robert Wistrich, ed., Anti-Zionism and Antisemitism in the Contemporary World, 195-207 (xeroxed article) (CP)
Helpful web links: Hate in America (Public Research Associates)

13) Wrap Up: What Can We Learn from the Holocaust?


Course Description:

This course traces the history of antisemitism with a focus on the Holocaust and racism.  We will investigate the development and implementation of racial antisemitism in Germany and compare Nazi antisemitism with other forms of racism and antisemitism in Europe and America.  We will also explore the social construction of race, the connection between antisemitism and anti-Zionism, the growth of neo-Nazism, and the complex relationship between American Jews and African Americans.

Skills/competencies emphasized:

* reading both primary and secondary historical sources
* understanding different historical approaches to the study of antisemitism and the Holocaust
* ability to evaluate and compare different types of antisemitism and racism in various historical contexts
* writing journals critically analyzing main ideas in readings
* participation in class discussions
* formulating historical arguments verbally and on paper
* writing short papers reviewing memoirs, historical monographs and visual materials dealing with the Holocaust