083- 951:  5:10 PM - 7:10 P.M., Thursday                                                              Spring Semester 2005

Credit Hours:  3                                                                                                   Classroom: TUCC

Professor: Gregory J. W. Urwin, Ph.D.                                                                 Office: 931 Gladfelter Hall

Office Hours:  1:30-3:00 P.M., Tuesday; 1:30-4:00 P.M., Thursday, or by appointment

E-Mail Address: gurwin@temple.edu

Declaration of Intent:  This course is designed to allow graduate students to hone their research and writing skills by producing a professional-quality research paper on some aspect of U.S. military history (broadly construed).  The findings in each paper must be based largely on primary sources, preferably archival.  Students who do their work properly should end up with the basis of a publishable journal article.

Admiral Husband E. Kimmel, Commander in Chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet (center), reviews
his war plans with two senior members of  at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, sometime before
December 7, 1941.  (U.S. Naval Historical Center).

Goals and Objectives:

Knowledge Based Skills: 1) Strategy, Tactics, and Logistics; 2) Impact of Evolving Military Technology; 3) Importance of Political Influences on War and Military Policy; 5) War’s Impact on Society; 6) Social Pressures and the Military; 7) Recruitment, Training, and Motivation; 8) Military Doctrine; 9) Military Professionalism; 10) Recognition of Primary Sources.

Skill-Based Goals: 1) Spatial Awareness; 2) Writing Proficiency; 3) Appreciation for Historical Context; 4) Improved Reading Comprehension; 5) Sequential Logic; 6) Analytical Thinking; 7) Preparation for a Lifetime of Learning; 8) Research Skills.

Texts:  Allen R. Millett and Peter Maslowski, For the Common Defense: A Military History of the United States.  Revised and expanded ed.  New York: Free Press, 1994.

University of Chicago Press Staff.  The Chicago Manual of Style. 15th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Semester Grade: This is a research course, and the bulk of the final grade will be determined by the quality of the research paper required of each student (worth 400 points).  Each paper will be twenty-six to thirty-two pages in length, not counting the title page, table of contents, illustrations and maps (if any), endnotes, and bibliography.  The paper must be typed, double-spaced, and printed in a clearly legible manner in 12- point Times New Roman font.  Hand-written corrections are unacceptable.  Proof-read the paper before you turn it in.  The mechanics of the paper (margins, indentations, endnote style, bibliography, tables, etc.), must conform to the directions given in The Chicago Manual of Style.  Any paper that does not conform to the CMS will immediately receive a failing grade.

(Left) General George Washington, the newly appointed commander of the Continental Army (in the blue and buff uniform at center), reviews his poorly trained and disciplined New England troops outside Boston in the summer of 1775.  (U.S. Army Center of Military History)

          Each student can earn up to 50 points for appropriate participation in the discussions of chapters from For the Common Defense (with 10 points deducted for each session missed); 50 points for an acceptable topic and problem statement; 50 points for an acceptable tentative bibliography, 50 points for successful participation in the reference note clinic, 50 points for an acceptable paper outline, 100 points for an acceptable first-draft of the paper, and 50 points for appropriate participation in the oral reports given by their classmates on their respective papers (with 10 points deducted for each session missed).
          Student participation is a vital part of any seminar.  In a seminar, students learn as much (if not more) from the constructive criticism of their classmates.  This course rests on the assumption that those enrolled are mature, serious, self-motivated, and intent on acquiring the skills of professional historians.  Anyone who does not aspire to such a standard will find this course inappropriate to his/her needs.

Topic and Problem Statement: In the second week of the semester, each student is expected to present the instructor with a typewritten sheet revealing his/her paper topic and a problem statement laying out the thesis that the paper is intended to support. The student is free to alter his/her thesis as he/she gets deeper into his/her research.

Tentative Bibliography: Early in the semester student will be expected to distribute a copy of his/her tentative paper bibliography to everyone in the class.  This is to ensure that each student is prepared to get an early start on his/her research, as well as inform his/her classmates as to the different sorts of materials available for researching topics in military history.

Paper Outline: The paper outline should be typed.  It should be divided into appropriate sub-sections, and lay out the logical progression of the chapter, showing how the author intends to prove the stated thesis.

Class Presentations: In the latter half of the semester, each student will present an oral report dealing with the subject covered by his/her research paper.  The length of each report will be determined by the size of the class (the fewer students, the more time each presenter will receive).  Each student should be prepared to speak for forty to forty-five minutes and to also field questions for fifteen to twenty minutes from the instructor and the rest of the class.  Those students who have to present their papers earlier in the semester will not be expected to attain the same standard as those who present toward the end.  If possible, each presenter should e-mail the existing draft of his/her paper to the instructor and the rest of the class two days before it is presented.  Everyone in the class is expected to read those drafts and come to class prepared to discuss them.

A collection of Union young staff officers belonging to Major General George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac take
their ease on Virginia's James Peninsula sometime in May 1862.  Lying in the right foreground is Second Lieutenant
George Armstrong Custer.  Although Custer had graduated last in his class from West Point in June 1861, he would
become a brigadier general of U.S. Volunteers by June 29, 1863.  (Library of Congress).

A Look Back at American Military Policy, 1783-88

         “Altho’ a large standing Army in time of Peace hath ever been considered dangerous to the liberties of a Country, yet a few Troops, under certain circumstances, are not only safe, but indispensably necessary.  Fortunately for us our relative situation requires but few.  The same circumstances which so effectually retarded, and in the end conspired to defeat the attempts of Britain to subdue us, will now powerfully tend to render us secure.  Our distance from the European States in a great degree frees us of apprehension, from their numerous regular forces and the Insults and dangers, which are to be dreaded from their Ambition.”

George Washington, Sentiments on a Peace Establishment, 2 May 1783

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         “If . . . it should be resolved to extend the prohibition to the raising of armies in time of peace, the United States would then exhibit the most extraordinary spectacle which the world has yet seen – that of a nation incapacitated by its Constitution to prepare for the defense before it was actually invaded. . . .  We must receive the blow before we could even prepare to return it.  All that kind of policy by which nations anticipate distant danger and meet the gathering storm must be abstained from, as contrary to the genuine maxims of a free government.  We must expose our property and liberty to the mercy of foreign invaders and invite them, by our weakness, to seize the naked and defenseless prey, because we are afraid that rulers, created by our choice, dependent on our will, might endangers that liberty, by an abuse of the means necessary to its preservation.”

Alexander Hamilton, The Federalist, No. 25

Eight female war correspondents who covered the U.S. Army in the European Theater during World
War II appear together in this1943 photograph.  (U.S. Army Center of Military History)


Week 1: 18-21 January
  Course Introduction

Week 2: 24-28 January
  U.S. Military History, 1607-1865

           Paper Topics and Problem Statements Due (27 January)
           Discuss Millett and Maslowski, Chs. 1-7

Week 3: 31 January-4 February
  U.S. Military History, 1865-1945

           Discuss Millett and Maslowski, Chs. 8-14
           Introduction to The Chicago Manual of Style

Week 4: 7-11 February
  U.S. Military History, 1945-1993

       Tentative Bibliography Due (10 February)
       Discuss Millett and Maslowski, Chs. 15-18

Week 5: 14-18 February
  Research (No Class)

           Dr. Urwin will be available in classroom if necessary for individual or small-group conferences (17 February).  E-mail him by 15 February  to confirm your attendance.

Week 6: 21-25 February
  Research (No Class)

Week 7: 28 February-4 March
  Research (No Class)

Spring Break: 7-11 March

Week 8: 14-18 March
  Research (No Class)

            Paper Outlines Due (17 March):  Electronic Copies Acceptable.

Week 9: 21-25 March

           Reference Note Clinic.  Bring to class typed samples of reference notes – both long form and short form – of different sorts of archival sources (diary
           entries, correspondence, official papers, etc.), a book, a journal or magazine article, a newspaper article.  (24 March)

Week 10: 28 March-1 April
  Student Presentations (depending on course enrollment)

           If course enrollment is ten students or less, there will be no student presentations this week.

Week 11: 4-8 April
  Student Presentations (depending on course enrollment)

           If course enrollment is eight students or less, there will be no student presentations this week.

Week 12: 11-15 April
  Student Presentations

           First Drafts of Papers Due (14 April)

Week 13: 18-22 April
  Student Presentations

Week 14: 25-29 April
  Student Presentations

Week 15: 2-6 May (Final Exams Start on 5 May)
  Student Presentations

           Final Draft of Paper Due (5 May)

Final Exam Week: 5-11 May

American Military Policy Today

        “The gravest danger to freedom lies at the crossroads of radicalism and technology. When the spread of chemical and biological and nuclear weapons, along with ballistic missile technology—when that occurs, even weak states and small groups could attain a catastrophic power to strike great nations. Our enemies have declared this very intention, and have been caught seeking these terrible weapons. They want the capability to blackmail us, or to harm us, or to harm our friends—and we will oppose them with all our power.”

President George W. Bush, Graduation Address, U.S. Military Academy, 1 June 2002

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        “The United States will not use force in all cases to preempt emerging threats, nor should nations use preemption as a pretext for aggression. Yet in an age where the enemies of civilization openly and actively seek the world’s most destructive technologies, the United States cannot remain idle while dangers gather.”

The National Security Strategy of the United States, September 2002

American soldiers on patrol in Hizara Province, Afghanistan, in 2003.
(U.S. Army Center of Military History)

“The secret of being a bore is to tell everything”

 Voltaire (French Philosopher and Author), 1694-1778