Robert R. Bowie and Richard H. Immerman, Waging Peace: How Eisenhower Shaped an Enduring Cold War Strategy (Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

Table of Contents (Endnotes)

Introduction
 
 

Part I: Prologue

Chapter 1: The Truman Legacy

Chapter 2: The Prepresidential Eisenhower

Chapter 3: The Presecretarial Dulles

Chapter 4: Campaigning for Security with Solvency
 
 

Part II: Processes and Inputs

Chapter 5: Organizing for National Security

Chapter 6: How Much is Enough

Chapter 7: A Chance for Peace?

Chapter 8: The Solarium Exercise

Chapter 9: Drafting NSC 162/2
 
 

Part III: The Strategy

Chapter 10: The Sino-Soviet Threat

Chapter 11: Strategic Objectives: Roll-back?

Chapter 12: Military Strategy

Chapter 13: Strengthening the Non-Communist World

Chapter 14: Reducing the Nuclear Danger: Arms Control
 
 

Part IV: Epilogue

Chapter 15: The Eisenhower Legacy
 
 

Bibliography

Select Bibliography


Introduction

  1. Quoted in Emmet John Hughes, The Ordeal of Power: A Political Memoir of the Eisenhower Years (New York, 1963), 251 (emphasis in original). Moreover, according to opinion polls, Eisenhower enjoyed high public respect and confidence during his tenure. See Fred I. Greenstein, The Hidden-Hand Presidency: Eisenhower as Leader (New York, 1982), 4.
  2. On Eisenhower revisionism, see, Richard H. Immerman, "Confessions of an Eisenhower Revisionist: An Agonizing Reappraisal," Diplomatic History 14 (Summer 1990): 319-42; Stephen G. Rabe, "Eisenhower Revisionism: A Decade of Scholarship," ibid. 17 (Winter 1993): 97-115.
  3. David L. Porter, "American Historians Rate Our Presidents," in The Rating Game in American Politics, eds. William Pederson and Ann McLaurin (New York, 1987), 13-37. This article draws from polls on the presidents conducted by Arthur M. Schesinger, Jr. (1962), David L. Porter (1981), and the Chicago Tribune (1982).
  4. Illustrative of the extent to which what occurred after Eisenhower left office has affected evaluations of his administration, see Robert A. Divine, Eisenhower and the Cold War (New York, 1981).
  5. Bowie, who attended the NSC meetings as an observer and then heard Gleason's Planning Board briefings, attests to the accuracy of the accounts.

Chapter 1: The Truman Legacy

  1. Paul Nitze, "A Project for Further Analysis and Study of Certain Factors Affecting our Foreign Policy and Our National Defense Policy," September 15, 1954, Consultants Papers (Tab L), Project Control Final Report, October 1954, Air War College, Maxwell Air Force Base, Montgomery, ALA.
  2. We discuss his motivations in detail in chapter 4.
  3. Stephen E. Ambrose, Eisenhower: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect, 1890-1952 (NY, 1983), 498-99; Dwight D. Eisenhower, At Ease: Stories I Tell to Friends (Garden City, NY, 1967), 371-72.
  4. Entry for January 22, 1952, in Robert H. Ferrell, ed., The Eisenhower Diaries (NY, 1981), 209-13; entry for July 6, 1950, ibid., 176-77; entry for November 6, 1950, ibid., 180-81; entry for December 5, 1950, ibid., 182-83.
  5. See for example, John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar United States National Policy (NY, 1982), 25-53; Melvyn P. Leffler, A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War (Stanford, 1991), 255-220; Deborah Welch Larson, Origins of Containment: A Psychological Explanation (Princeton, 1985), passim.
  6. NSC 20, "Appraisal of the Degree and Character of Military Preparedness Required by the World Situation," July 10, 1948, FR, 1948, 1:589.
  7. NSC 20/1, "U.S. Objectives with Respect to Russia," August 18, 1948, ibid., 609; NSC 20/2, "Factors Affecting the Nature of U.S. Defense Arrangements in the Light of Soviet Policies," August 25, 1948, ibid., 614; NSC 20/4, "U.S. Objectives with Respect to the USSR to Counter Soviet Threats to U.S. Security," November 23, 1948, ibid., 662-69.
  8. NSC 20/4, 662-69.
  9. Our account of this period draws on Samuel R. Williamson, Jr., and Steven L. Rearden, The Origins of U.S. Nuclear Strategy, 1945-1953 (New York, 1993), especially chapter 5; Townsend Hoopes and Douglas Brinkley, Driven Patriot: The Life and Times of James Forrestal (NY, 1992), chapters 27, 29, and 30; David A. Rosenberg, "The Origins of Overkill: Nuclear Weapons and American Strategy, 1945-1960," International Security 7 (Spring 1983): 12-21.
  10. Quoted in David McCullough, Truman (New York, 1992), 649-50.
  11. Williamson and Rearden, Origins of Nuclear Strategy, 90.
  12. NSC 30, "U.S. Policy on Atomic Warfare," September 10, 1948, FR, 1948, 1:624-28.
  13. Hoopes and Brinkley, Driven Patriot, 406-07.
  14. Williamson and Rearden, Origins of Nuclear Strategy, 94-96.
  15. Entries for January 27-March 19, 1949, in Ferrell, ed., Eisenhower Diaries, 154-58.
  16. Williamson and Rearden, Origins of Nuclear Strategy, 108.
  17. Ibid., 102-04; Rosenberg, "Origins of Overkill," 19-21.
  18. Thomas Etzold and John Lewis Gaddis, eds., Containment: Documents on American Policy and Strategy (NY, 1978), 360-64.
  19. Walter Poole, History of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1950-52 4 (Wilmington, DE, 1979), 163-64; Williamson and Rearden, Origins of Nuclear Strategy, 124. WSEG was a technical advisory body for the JCS. Truman was briefed on the WSEG report shortly before his H-bomb decision, but he did not receive the Harmon report.
  20. Poole, JCS History, 161-62.
  21. See entries for January 27 and February 4, 9, 1949, in Ferrell, ed., The Eisenhower Diaries, 154-57, for accounts of the bitter service infighting over the strategic nuclear mission, and Truman's agreement with Eisenhower, including "to support strongest possible air force."
  22. Entry for June 4, 1949, ibid., 159.
  23. Williamson and Rearden, Origins of Nuclear Strategy, 108-11.
  24. McCullough, Truman, 111-26; Williamson and Rearden, Origins of Nuclear Strategy, 125-26.
  25. Truman to Acheson, January 31, 1950, FR, 1950, 1:141-42; memorandum by Kennan, January 20, 1950, ibid., 22-44; Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation (New York, 1969), 344-49.
  26. NSC 68, "U.S. Objectives and Programs for National Security," April 14, 1950, FR, 1950, 1:235-92; Truman to James L. Lay, Jr., April 12, 1950, ibid., 234-35; Acheson, Present at the Creation, 373-74; Poole, JCS History, 32.
  27. NSC 68/2, September 30, 1950, FR, 1950, 1:400.
  28. NSC 68, 287-92.
  29. See Ernest R. May, ed., American Cold War Strategy: Interpreting NSC 68 (Boston, 1993).
  30. Paul Nitze with Ann M. Smith and Steven L. Rearden, From Hiroshima to Glasnost: At the Center of Decision--A Memoir (NY, 1989), 97.
  31. Wilson D. Miscamble, C.S.C., George F. Kennan and the Making of American Foreign Policy, 1947-1950 (Princeton, 1992, 308-13; George Kennan, "Is War with Russia Inevitable? Five Solid Arguments for Peace," Readers Digest 56 (March 1950): 1-9; Acheson, Present at the Creation, 371-77.
  32. George Kennan [Mr. "X"], "The Sources of Soviet Conduct," Foreign Affairs 25 (July 1947): 566-82; NSC 20/4, FR, 1948, 1:662-69; NSC 20/2, 615-24; Kennan, "Is War with Russia Inevitable?" 1-9.
  33. NSC 68, 238, 262-63.
  34. Ibid., 246, 237-38.
  35. Paper Prepared by Nitze, "Recent Soviet Moves," February 8, 1950, FR, 1950, 1:145.
  36. NSC 68, 287-88, 263-64, 266-67.
  37. Ibid., 251-52, 263-67.
  38. Bohlen memorandum to Nitze, April 5, 1950, FR, 1950, 1:221-25.
  39. NSC 20/4, 667-68.
  40. NSC 68, 289.
  41. Ibid., 263-64, 266-67.
  42. Ibid., 241-42.
  43. Ibid., 284.
  44. Ibid.
  45. Ibid., 282, 291, 253.
  46. Acheson quoted in Leffler, Preponderance of Power, 488.
  47. NSC 68, 282, 284, 287, 248. (authors' emphasis)
  48. Ibid., 284. See also Nitze memorandum to Freeman Matthews, July 14, 1952, FR, 1952-54, 2:67-8. Interestingly, while NSC 68 occasionally refers to "roll-back" and "retraction," it often uses the more andoyne term "the objectives" NSC 68, and Nitze generally adopted the same practice.
  49. NSC 68, 253.
  50. NSC 68, 281-82.
  51. Ibid., 267.
  52. Ibid., 244, 253, 285.
  53. Ibid., 269-76; 291.
  54. Ibid., 271.
  55. Ibid., 291, 273-74.
  56. NIE 11, December 5, 1950, quoted in Poole, JCS History, 67; memorandum by the CIA, "Soviet Intentions in the Current Situation," December 2, 1950, FR, 1950, 7:1308.
  57. NSC 68/4, December 14, 1950, FR, 1950, 1:467-74; Poole, JCS History, 66-71.
  58. For statistics see the table on p.75 of Poole, JCS History.
  59. Harry S. Truman, "Proclamation 2914: Proclaiming the Existence of a Natinal Emergency, December 16, 1950, Personal Papers of the President: Harry Truman (Washington, 1965), 746-47. (hereafter, PPP).
  60. Poole, JCS History, 83.
  61. Ibid., 88-89.
  62. NSC 114/1, " Status and Timing of Curreent U.S. Programs for National Security," August 8, 1951, FR, 1951, 1:127-57; Poole, JCS History, 91-93.
  63. NSC 114/1, 147; Poole, JCS History, 82-86.
  64. Poole, JCS History, 94-101, 170-74.
  65. Rosenberg, "Origins of Overkill," 22; Poole, JCS History, 145.
  66. Rosenberg, "Origins of Overkill," 23.
  67. Ibid.
  68. Nuclear Weapons Databook, vol.1, 15; Poole, JCS History, 167.
  69. Poole, JCS History, 213, 218-19.
  70. Robert Wampler, Ambiguous Legacy: The United States, Great Britain, and the Formulation of NATO Strategy, 1948-1957 (Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1991), 30.
  71. Poole, JCS History, 307-08.
  72. Ibid., 241-47; Acheson, Present at the Creation, 559-60.
  73. Poole, JCS History, 267, 275-79, 289-93. SACEUR estimated Soviet D-day forces at 134 divisions, rising to 320 by D + 30.
  74. Wampler, Ambiguous Legacy, 267.
  75. Acheson, Present at the Creation, 426.
  76. Poole, JCS History, 109.
  77. Ibid.; Williamson and Rearden, Origins of Nuclear Strategy, 148-49.
  78. Poole, JCS History, 109-113.
  79. Raymond L. Garthoff, "Assessing the Adversary: Estimates by the Eisenhower Administration of Soviet Intentions and Capabilities," Brookings Occasional Papers (1991), 16; Harry Rositzke, The CIA's Secret Operations: Espionage, Counterespionage and Covert Action (New York, 1977), 168-72.
  80. Lay memorandum for the NSC, June 1, 1951, FR, 1951, 1:88-89; Truman directive to the NSC, enclosed with Lay memorandum for the NSC, July 12, 1951, ibid., 101-03.
  81. Bohlen memorandum to Nitze, April 5, ibid., 1:221-25; Bohlen memoranda to Acheson, July 28, August 22, September 21, and September 25, 1951, all in ibid., 1:106-08, 163-66, 170-72, 177-78; Henry Koch memorandum to John Ferguson, August 24, ibid., 166-69; Robert Joyce memorandum to Koch, August 28, 1951, ibid., 169-70; PPS memorandum, September 22, 1951, ibid., 172-75; Bohlen to Acheson, October 9, 1951, ibid., 180-81.
  82. Bohlen memorandum to Acheson, August 22, 1951, ibid., 165.
  83. Bohlen to Acheson, October 9, 1951, 181.
  84. PPS memorandum, September 22, 1951, 172-75.
  85. Bohlen memorandum to Acheson, September 25, 1951, 177-78 (emphasis in original).
  86. Bohlen to Acheson, October 9, 1951, 181.
  87. Acheson, Present at the Creation, 752-53 (note to p.375).
  88. Bohlen to Acheson, October 17. 1951, FR, 1951, 1:234-35; Record of NSC meeting, October 17, 1951, ibid., 235-36; memorandum for the NSC by James S. Lay, Jr., October 18, 1951, ibid., 237-38.
  89. NSC 135/3, "Reappraisal of U.S. Objectives and Strategy for National Security," September 25, 1952, FR, 1952-54, 2:142-50; NSC 141, "Reexamination of U.S. Programs for National Security, January 19, 1953, ibid., 209-31.
  90. Bohlen to Acheson, October 17. 1951, 234-35; Record of NSC meeting, October 17, 1951, 235-36.
  91. Memorandum by Robert W. Tufts, May 21, 1952, FR, 1952-54, 2:18-20.
  92. Draft PPS Paper, n.d., ibid., 60-68; In May Harry Schwartz, executive secretary to the PPS, had written a memorandum to Bohlen, arguing that even with atomic weapons, the Soviets could not conceivably knock out all the U.S. bases by a surprise blow, and that in view of the Soviet concern for security of the regime the inevitable prospect of retaliation would deter any deliberate general war against the U.S. Schwartz memorandum to Bohlen, May 12, 1952, ibid., 12-17.
  93. Memorandum by Nitze to Matthews, July 14, 1952, and attached draft PPS Paper, ibid., 2:58-68.
  94. Nitze, Draft Statement of Policy, July 30, 1952, ibid., 68-73; Bohlen to Acheson, August 21, 1952, ibid., 87-88; NSC 135/1, August 15, 1952, ibid., 80-86; Draft Statement submitted to the NSC Senior Staff, August 12, 1952, ibid., 73-78; NSC 135/1 Annex, NSC Staff Study, August 22, 1952, ibid., 89-113.
  95. Memorandum of NSC discussion, September 3, 1952, ibid., 119-23; memorandum of NSC discussion, September 24, 1952, ibid., 136-39; NSC 135/3, September 25, 1952, ibid., 142-56.
  96. NSC 135/3, 147.
  97. Memorandum for the President by the Secretaries of State and Defense and the Director for Mutual Security, January 16, 1953, FR, 1952-54 2:210.
  98. Ibid.
  99. NSC 135/1 Annex, NSC Staff Study, August 22, 1952, FR, 1952-54, 2:89-94; Bohlen to Acheson, August 21, 1952, ibid., 87, and compare with Acheson's comments at the September 3, 1952, NSC meeting, ibid., 119.
  100. See Schwartz memorandum to Bohlen, May 12, 1952, 12-17.
  101. NSC 135/3, 145-47. (authors' emphasis)
  102. Ibid., 144-45.
  103. Ibid., 144. (authors' emphasis)
  104. Ibid., 147-48, 155.
  105. Leffler, Preponderance of Power, 490-91; John Ranelagh, The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA from Wild Bill Donovan to Bill Casey (New York, 1986), 219-20.
  106. Estimate Prepared by the Board of National Estimates, November 21, 1952, FR, 1952-54, 2:187-88.
  107. NSC 135/1 Annex, NSC Staff Study, 93.
  108. NSC 141, 229.
  109. Nitze memorandum to Acheson, January 12, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:205.
  110. Truman's Farewell Address to the American People, January 15, 1953, PPP, Truman, 1952-1953 (Washington, 1966), 1200-01.
  111. Minutes of Acheson meeting with the Panel of Consultants on Disarmament, April 28, 1952, FR, 1952-54, 2:901.
  112. Minutes of the Meeting of U.S. members of the Combined Policy Committee, April 16, 1952, ibid., 893.
  113. NSC 135/3, 146-147, 149-50.
  114. Poole, JCS History, 125-6.
  115. NSC 141, 222, 213-4.
  116. Ibid., 211-22.
  117. Poole, JCS History, 199. See also Wampler, Ambiguous Legacy, chapter 6.
  118. Wampler, Ambiguous Legacy, 378-82; Poole, JCS History, 299.
  119. Wampler, Ambiguous Legacy, 270-73; Poole, JCS History, 299, 326-27.
  120. Wampler, Ambiguous Legacy, 276.
  121. Ibid., 298-323.
  122. Ibid., 340-42.
  123. "Defense Policy and Global Strategy," Report by the British Chiefs of Staff, D(52)26, June 17, 1952, reprinted in Alan MacMillan and John Baylis, "A Reassessment of the British Global Strategy Paper of 1952," Nuclear History Program Occasional Paper 8 (1994), 19-63.
  124. Ibid.
  125. Poole, JCS History, 309.
  126. Wampler treats this whole episode in detail in Ambiguous Legacy, 340-54.
  127. Poole, JCS History, 304-06; Wampler, Ambiguous Legacy, 418.
  128. Wampler, Ambiguous Legacy, 437; Poole, JCS History, 310.
  129. Acheson, Present at the Creation, 707-09.
  130. Memorandum by Nitze to Acheson, January 12, 1953, 202-4.
  131. Memorandum for the President by the Secretaries of State and Defense and the Director for Mutual Security, January 16, 1953, 211.
  132. NSC 68, 283.
  133. Key Data Book, n.d., FR, 1952-54, 2:167-68.
  134. NSC 135/3, 146, and Appendix, 152.
  135. Views of Jack Gorrie on NSC 135/1, n.d. [September 2, 1952], ibid., 114-17; paper distributed by Gorrie at the September 24, 1952, NSC meeting, n.d., ibid., 141-42.
  136. Memorandum of NSC discussioon, September 3, 1952, 120-22.
  137. Memorandum of NSC discussion, September 24, 1952, 138-40.
  138. Memorandum by David Bruce, October 14, 1952, ibid., 164-65.
  139. Paper drafted by Nitze and Carlton Savage, November 11, 1952, ibid., 182-84. See also ibid., 142n.3. Whether the paper was submitted to the president is not clear.
  140. NSC 140, "Directive for a Special Evaluation Subcommittee," January 19, 1953, ibid., 205-07.
  141. Memorandum for the President by the Secretaries of State and Defense and the Director for Mutual Security, January 16, 1953, 211, 213-14.

Chapter 2: The Prepresidential Eisenhower

  1. Entry for January 21, 1953, in Ferrell, ed. Eisenhower Diaries, 225.
  2. Robert R. Jervis, Perception and Misperception in International Relations (Princeton, 1976); Ole Holsti, "Foreign Policy Formation Viewed Cognitively," in Structure of Decision: The Cognitive Maps of Political Elites, ed. Robert Axelrod (Princeton, 1976), 34; Richard H. Immerman, "Psychology," Journal of American History 77 (June 1990): 169-80.
  3. The most detailed account of this phase of Eisenhower's career is Ambrose, Eisenhower: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect, 1890-1952. Unless indicated otherwise, we draw on this biography. Additional biographies appear in the bibliography.
  4. Dwight D. Eisenhower, At Ease, 213.
  5. Eisenhower to Mamie Eisenhower, 26 August 1942, Letters to Mamie, ed. John S. D. Eisenhower (New York, 1978), 38 (emphasis in original). For similar assessments, see Eisenhower to John S. D. Eisenhower, October 13, 1942, The Papers of Dwight D. Eisenhower, ed. Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. and Louis Galambos, Jr., 15 vols. (Baltimore, 1970- ) 1:617 (hereafter DDEP, followed by volume number); Eisenhower to Paul Alfred Hodgson, December 4, 1942, ibid. 2:795.
  6. Entry for November 12, 1946, The Eisenhower Diaries, 137-38.
  7. There are countless studies of the evolution of the cold war. In addition to the sources cited in the prior chapter, see the bibliographic essay in Thomas G. Paterson and Robert J. McMahon, eds. The Origins of the Cold War (3rd. ed., Lexington, 1991).
  8. We borrow the term "wise men" from the prosopographic study by Walter Isaacson and Evan Thomas, The Wise Men. Six Friends and the World They Made: Acheson, Bohlen, Harriman, Kennan, Lovett, McCloy (New York, 1986).
  9. Eisenhower to Everett ("Swede") Hazlett, September 12, 1950, DDEP 11:1312; Eisenhower to Walter Bedell Smith, March 18, 1947, ibid., 8:1609.
  10. Eisenhower to Charles Erwin Wilson, 20 October 1951, DDEP 12: 659-60.
  11. Entry for January 22, 1952, Eisenhower Diaries, 210.
  12. Eisenhower to Gabriel N. Stilian, 23 August 1951, DDEP 12:488.
  13. Statement by General of the Armies Dwight D. Eisenhower Before an Informal Meeting of the Congress at the Library of Congress, February 1, 1951, U.S. Cong., Senate, Hearings Before the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Armed Services on S. Con. Res. 8, A Concurrent Resolution Relative to the Assignment of Ground Forces of the United States to Duty in the European Area, 82nd Congs., Ist Sess. (Washington, 1951), 2. See also Statement of General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower, April 2, 1948, U.S. Cong., House, Hearings Before the Committee on Armed Services on Universal Military Training, 80th Cong., 2nd Sess. (Washington, 1948), 986.
  14. The term "Great Equation" was popularized by Charles J. V. Murphy in "The Eisenhower Shift: Part I," Fortune, January 1956, 87.
  15. Eisenhower memorandum to Robert Porter Patterson and James Vincent Forrestal, 13 March 1946, DDEP 8:1596.
  16. Eisenhower to Lucius Du Bignon Clay, 9 February 1952, DDEP 13:963.
  17. Entry for January 22, 1952, in Ferrell, Eisenhower Diaries, 210.
  18. Entry for July 24, 1947, ibid., 143-44.
  19. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe (Garden City, NY, 1948), 476. In addition to volumes 6-13 of DDEP, on Eisenhower's advocacy of military preparedness in the aftermath of World War II see Dwight D. Eisenhower to The Honorable Clifton Woodrum, June 2, 1945, entered into the record of U.S. Congress, House, Hearings Before the Select Committee on Postwar Military Policy on H.R. 465, a Resolution to Establish a Select Committee on Postwar Military Policy 79th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington, 1945), 487-8; Statement of Dwight D. Eisenhower, General of the Army, and Chief of Staff, United States Army, March 21, 1946, U.S. Congress, House, Hearings Before the Committee on Military Affairs on H.R. 5682, An Act Extending the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, As Amended, 79th Cong., 2nd Sess. (Washington, 1946), 2-15; Statement of General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower, April 2, 1948, U.S. Cong. House, Hearings Before the Committee on Armed Services on Universal Military Training, 80th Cong., 2nd Sess. (Washington, 1948), 986-1013; Statement of General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower, February 2, 1951, U.S. Congress, Senate, Hearings Before the Preparedness Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services on S. 1, A Bill to Provide for the Common Defense and Security of the United States and to Permit the More Effective Utilization of Manpower Resources of the United States by Authorizing Universal Military Service and Training, and For Other Purposes, 82nd Cong. 1st Sess. (Washington, 1951), 1186-1204.
  20. Entry for January 22, 1952, DDEP, 13:896 (emphasis in original). The emphasis does not appear in Eisenhower Diaries, 209.
  21. Entry for July 24, 1947, Eisenhower Diaries, 142.
  22. Memorandum by the Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, November 10, 1947, DDEP 9:1852; Eisenhower to Hazlett, April 27, 1949, ibid. 10:563; entries for February 2 and 4, 1949, Eisenhower Diaries, 156-57.
  23. Entry for January 22, 1952, Eisenhower Diaries, 211-12; entry for October 10, 1951, ibid., 200-201.
  24. Entry for February 19, 1949, ibid., 157-58.
  25. Eisenhower statement, February 1, 1951, Hearings Before the Senate Committees on Foreign Relations and Armed Services, 19.
  26. Daniel Yergin, Shattered Peace: The Origins of the Cold War (rev. ed., New York, 1990), 42-68.
  27. Entry for June 11, 1949, Eisenhower Diaries, 160; Eisenhower to George Arthur Sloan, March 20, 1952, DDEP 13:1098. For Eisenhower's earlier belief that a "'live and let live' type of agreement [with the Soviets] could be achieved and honestly kept," see his Crusade in Europe, 475; Eisenhower to Henry Agard Wallace, August 28, 1945, DDEP 6:314-15. Americans' conflicting perceptions of Soviet intent are explicitly analyzed in Yergin, Shattered Peace.
  28. Eisenhower to Lucius Clay, December 11, 1945, DDEP 7:619; Eisenhower to Mamie Eisenhower, November 24, 1942, Letters to Mamie, 65; Eisenhower to Paul Williams Thompson, August 8, 1945, DDEP 6:257; Eisenhower to Zhukov, December 6, 1945, ibid., 7:591-92; Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe, 470-74. On the influence of personal experiences on images and learning, see Jervis, Perception and Misperception in International Relations, 239-71.
  29. Eisenhower to David Lawrence, March 14, 1952, "Eisenhower, Dwight D.," Lawrence Papers. Eisenhower initially believed that Zhukov's occupied a permanent place in the Kremlin's hierarchy. In 1947 he expressed the fear that their relationship contributed to the marshal's "eclipse." Eisenhower to Bernard Law Montgomery, February 20, 1947, DDEP 8: 1530-31. Significantly, after Stalin's death the Kremlin hoped to take advantage of Zhukov's friendship with Eisenhower by resurrecting him as defense minister and including him in their delegation to the 1955 Geneva summit. The former comrades-in-arms lunched privately, except for interpreters, at the president's villa. Although pleasant enough, their conversation did not improve Soviet-American relations. Memorandum of conversation, July 20, 1955, "Strictly Confidential U-Z (2), General Correspondence and Memoranda Series, John Foster Dulles Papers, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas (hereafter, DP--Eisenhower).
  30. Entry for March 17, 1953, "Hughes Diary Notes 1953," Emmet J. Hughes Papers, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. A slightly different version of Eisenhower's quote appears in Emmet John Hughes, The Ordeal of Power: A Political Memoir of the Eisenhower Years (NY, 1975), 107. For an earlier instance of Eisenhower's recalling this conversation to support his image of Stalin, see Eisenhower to Henry Maitland Wilson, October 30, 1947, DDEP 9:2021-22.
  31. Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe, 469.
  32. Eisenhower to Field Marshal the Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, May 2, 1956, "Montgomery (NATO), 1953-56 (3)," Name Series, Papers of Dwight D. Eisenhower as President of the United States (Whitman File), Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, KA. (hereafter Whitman file); Eisenhower statement, February 1, 1951, Hearings Before the Senate Committees on Foreign Relations and Armed Services, 25; Notes on a meeting at the White House, January 31, 1951, FR, 1951, 3:456; Eisenhower to Martin Withington Clement, January 9, 1952, DDEP 13:867.
  33. Eisenhower's mark-up of "A National Strategy for the Soviet Union," address by Rear Admiral L. C. Stevens, January 25, 1951, is located in "Harriman, W. Averell (4)," Dwight D. Eisenhower Pre-Presidential Papers, 1916-52, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas (hereafter, 16-52 Papers). In addition to the quote on pp.20-21, the underscorings and marginalia on pp. 27 and 32 are particularly revealing. Eisenhower wrote in his diary, "Some days ago I read a remarkable paper on Soviets, by an Admiral Stevens. I think I'll put it in the back of this book [he did not] because, with minor exceptions, it represents my beliefs exactly." Entry for March 3, 1951, Eisenhower Diaries, 189 (emphasis in original). Stevens served on the JCS staff after a three year stint as Naval attache in Moscow, a period that coincided with Bedell Smith's tenure as ambassador.
  34. On Eisenhower's faith in his ability to calculate what he called the "personal equation," see Fred I. Greenstein, The Hidden-Hand Presidency: Eisenhower as Leader (NY, 1982), 25-30.
  35. Eisenhower to Gabriel N. Stilian, August 23, 1951, DDEP 12:488-89 (emphasis in original).
  36. Eisenhower to Martin Withington Clement, January 9, 1952, ibid. 12:868; Eisenhower to Walter Bedell Smith, March 18, 1947, ibid. 8:1609.
  37. Entries for May 26, 1946 and October 10, 1951, Eisenhower Diaries, 137, 201; notes on meeting at the White House, January 31, 1951, 450; Eisenhower to Stilian, August 23, 1951, DDEP 12:488-89.
  38. Eisenhower to David Lawrence, March 14, 1952, "Eisenhower, Dwight D.," Correspondence, David Lawrence Papers, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.
  39. Eisenhower to Truman, December 16, 1950, DDEP 11:1488.
  40. Eisenhower to Whitney, March 26, 1952, DDEP 13:1125-26. The term "imperial overstretch" appeared long after Eisenhower's death. See Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000 (New York, 1987). International events since 1989 might be interpreted to confirm Eisenhower's prophesy. But one might argue that the United States has been guilty of similar if not parallel sins.
  41. Eisenhower to General Joseph Ingram Greene, July 13, 1946, DDEP 7:1196-97. Although the agent for the nuclear revolution was the hydrogen bomb, it was anticipated by theorists such as Brodie. See Bernard Brodie et al., The Absolute Weapon: Atomic Power and World Order (New York, 1946). See also Robert Jervis, The Meaning of the Nuclear Revolution: Statecraft and the Prospect of Armageddon (Ithaca, 1989). Eisenhower highlighted the sentence in the manuscript of Brodie's "Military Policy and the Atomic Bomb" that read, "Whether or not the ideas presented above are entirely valid, they may perhaps stimulate those to whom our military security is entrusted to a more rigorous and better informed kind of analysis which will reach sounder conclusions." His marked-up copy can be found in "Atomic Weapons and Energy (2)," 16-52 Papers.
  42. Eisenhower address, October 8, 1952, "September 26, 1952," speech series, Whitman file.
  43. Dwight D. Eisenhower, At Ease, 186.
  44. Eisenhower to John Sheldon Doud Eisenhower, August 23, 1946, DDEP 2:1250.
  45. Eisenhower, Mandate for Change, 312-13; quoted in Gar Alperovitz, Atomic Diplomacy: Hiroshima and Potsdam--The Use of the Atomic Bomb and the American Confrontation with Soviet Power (rev. ed., N.Y., 1985). 1. See also ibid., 14. For evidence that challenges the assertion that at the time Eisenhower opposed Truman's decision to use the bomb, see Barton J. Bernstein, "Ike and Hiroshima: Did he oppose it?" Journal of Strategic Studies 10 (September 1987): 337-79.
  46. Eisenhower address, October 8, 1952, "September 26, 1952;" Eisenhower address, May 16, 1950, New York Times, May 17, 1950; Eisenhower to Andrew Wells Robertson, October 11, 1950, DDEP 11:1374; Eisehower to George Whitney, March 26, 1952, ibid., 13:1126. See also Eisenhower, At Ease, 250. Eisenhower's belief that war in the atomic age was stupid and futile was manifest in his effort to establish the Institute of War and Peace Studies while he was president of Columbia University. Columbia established the Institute in 1952, after Eisenhower resigned.
  47. Eisenhower, "World Peace--A Balance," March 23, 1950, in Peace with Justice: Selected Addresses of Dwight D. Eisenhower (New York, 1961), 18; Arthur Krock private memo, January 5, 1951, "Eisenhower, Dwight D.," Correspondence--Selected," Arthur W. Krock Papers, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey. Eisenhower held to this estimate of Soviet intentions consistently. See S. W. D., memorandum for record, and O. S. P., memorandum for Hull and Craig, both June 12, 1946, DDEP 7:1106-07n.3; New York Times, February 6, 1948; DDEP 9:2217n.2; Eisenhower to Martin Withington Clement, January 9, 1952, ibid. 13:867; Eisenhower to Lewis Williams Douglas, May 20, 1952, ibid., 1230; Eisenhower to Bernard Mannes Baruch, June 30, 1952, ibid., 1263.
  48. Krock private memo, January 5, 1951, Arthur J. Krock Papers, Princeton, University, Princeton, NJ; Eisenhower address to the American Legion Convention in New York, August 25, 1952, "July 12, 1952--September 14, 1952," Speech series, Whitman File.
  49. Notes on meeting at the White House, January 31, 1951, 456; Eisenhower to Kenneth Arthur Noel Anderson, September 19, 1946, DDEP 8:1308; Eisenhower to Kenneth William Dobson Strong, June 29, 1950, DDEP 11:1184-85; Eisenhower to Martin Withington Clement, January 9, 1952, ibid. 13:867; Eisenhower to George Whitney, March 26, 1952, ibid., 1125 (emphasis in original); Entry for January 22, 1952, Eisenhower Diaries, 213. On the loose and not-so-loose talk of preventive war, and planning for such an option, see Marc Trachtenberg, "A 'Wasting Asset': American Strategy and the Shifting Nuclear Balance," International Security 13 (Winter 1988/89): 5-49; Tami Davis Biddle, "Handling the Soviet Threat: Project Control and the Debate on American Strategy in the Early Cold War Years," Journal of Strategic Studies (September 1989): 273-302; Russell D. Buhite and Wm. Christopher Hamel, "War for Peace: The Question of an American Preventive War against the Soviet Union, 1945-1955," Diplomatic History 14 (Summer 1990): 367-84. On the security dilemma see Robert R. Jervis, "Cooperation under the Security Dilemma," World Politics 30 (January 1978): 167-214.
  50. Eisenhower to Hazlett, April 27, 1949, DDEP, 10:564.
  51. Ibid., 563-64.
  52. Notes on meeting at the White House, January 31, 1951, 457; Eisenhower to Martin Withington Clement, January 9, 1952, DDEP 13:867; Eisenhower statement, April 2, 1948, Hearings Before the House Committee on Armed Services, 987; Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe, 477.
  53. Eisenhower's Address at Guildhall, London, England, June 12, 1945, printed in Appendix 1 of Harold Stassen and Marshall Houts, Eisenhower: Turning the World Toward Peace (St. Paul, 1990), 357-61.
  54. Notes on meeting at the White House, January 31, 1951, 450.
  55. Entry for November 24, 1951, Eisenhower Diaries, 206; Eisenhower memorandum for Secretary Forrestal, January 31, 1948, DDEP 9:2218-19; Eisenhower to George Arthur Sloan, March 20, 1952, ibid. 13:1099-1101; Eisenhower to William Averell Harriman, June 30, 1951, ibid. 12:398 (emphasis in original).
  56. Eisenhower testimony on February 1, 1951, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations and Armed Services Hearings, 3-7; notes on a meeting at the White House, January 31, 1951, 450.
  57. Thomas M. Sisk, "Forging the Weapon: Eisenhower as NATO's Supreme Allied Commander, Europe, 1950-1952, in Gunter Bischof and Stephen E. Ambrose, Eisenhower: A Centenary Assessment (Baton Rouge, 1995), 64-83.
  58. Eisenhower to William Edward Robinson, March 6, 1951, DDEP, 12:98; Eisenhower to Kenyon Ashe Joyce, March 7, 1947, ibid. 8: 1567-68. As will be seen, Eisenhower retained these views but determined that for political reasons, U.S. troops would have to remain in overseas indefinitely.
  59. Entry for September 16, 1947, Eisenhower Diaries, 143; Eisenhower to William Averell Harriman, April 20, 1951, DDEP 12:224-25.
  60. This pervasive geopolitical perspective and Eisenhower's acceptance of it is developed best in Leffler, Preponderance of Power.
  61. Eisenhower to George Arthur Sloan, March 20, 1952, DDEP 13: 1098-1103.
  62. On the Phillipines, see, for example, entry for January 20, 1936, Eisenhower Diaries, 13-15.
  63. Entry for January 6, 1953, ibid., 222-24.
  64. Ibid.; Eisenhower to William Averell Harriman, April 20, 1951, DDEP 12: 224-25; Eisenhower to Robert Alexis McClure, October 2, 1945, ibid. 6:403-404; Eisenhower statement before Congress, February 1, 1951, 28; Eisenhower to Anthony Joseph Drexel Biddle, Jr., April 1, 1952, ibid. 12:1148. Eisenhower's history of advocating and exploiting unconventional warfare during and after World War II is documented and analyzed in Stephen E. Ambrose with Richard H. Immerman, Ike's Spies: Eisenhower and the Espionage Establishment (Garden City, NY, 1981). For his prepresidential efforts to improve these capabilities, see, in addition to the above sources, Eisenhower to Lauris Norstad, June 19, 1947, DDEP 8:1763-64; Eisenhower to John Foster Dulles, November 26, 1952, "Confidential--Memos and Letters (3)," Subject Series, DP--Eisenhower.
  65. On Wisner and his legendary status in the CIA, see Evan Thomas, The Very Best Men: Four Who Dared: The Early Years of the CIA (NY, 1995).
  66. Eisenhower to Louis Arthur Johnson, May 16, 1949, DDEP 10:428; "The Pursuit of Liberty," an address by John Foster Dulles, December 13, 1949, "Liberation--1949," John Foster Dulles Papers, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey (hereafter, DP--Princeton). Eisenhower's sponsorship of the National Committee for a Free Europe can be traced in "Clubs and Associations, National Committee for a Free Europe Correspondence," Subject File, 16-52 Papers.
  67. For the spectrum of categories for organizing the presidency, with Roosevelt's "competitive" and Eisenhower's "formalistic" at the extremes, see Richard Tanner Johnson, Managing the White House: An Intimate Study of the Presidency (New York, 1974); Stephen Hess, Organizing the Presidency (Washington, D.C., 1976).
  68. Entry for January 22, 1952, in Ferrell, ed., The Eisenhower Diaries, 209-13; entry for July 6, 1950, ibid., 176-77; entry for November 6, 1950, ibid., 180-81; December 5, 1950, ibid., 182-83.
  69. Eisenhower address, October 8, 1952. Indicative of the importance Eisenhower attached to this principle, excerpts from this speech were circulated among national security planners during the administration's first months. Barklie Henry to William H. Jackson and enclosure, March 16, 1953, "Misc. File Material--A-F (3)," PCIIA (Jackson Committee) Records, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, KA; Elmer B. Staats memorandum for the Professional Staff, OCB, September 29, 1953, "Budget-Federal (1)" Special Assistant series, subject subseries, Records of the White House Office, Office of the Special Assistant for National Security Affairs, ibid. (hereafter WHO, OSANSA).
  70. Greenstein, Hidden-Hand Presidency, 133.
  71. Quoted in Stephen E. Ambrose, D-Day, June 6, 1944: The Climactic Battle of World War II (New York, 1994), 61.
  72. Eisenhower to James Vincent Forrestal, February 7, 1948, DDEP 9:2250.

Chapter 3: The Presecretarial Dulles

  1. Entry for May 14, 1953, Eisenhower Diaries , 237.
  2. In order to avoid compromising his bipartisanship, Eisenhower did not campaign for Dulles. Herbert S. Parmet, Eisenhower and the American Crusades (New York, 1972), 59; transcript of a recorded interview with Dwight D. Eisenhower, July 28, 1964, The John Foster Dulles Oral History Project, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.
  3. Richard H. Immerman, ed., John Foster Dulles and the Diplomacy of the Cold War (Princeton, 1990), 9. See also idem., "Eisenhower and Dulles: Who Made the Decisions?" Political Psychology 1 (Autumn 1979): 21-38. An idiosyncratic study of Dulles published in 1993 unpersuasively revives the pre-Eisenhower revisionism argument that Dulles dominated Eisenhower. Frederick W. Marks, Power and Peace: The Diplomacy of John Foster Dulles (Westport, CT, 1993).
  4. The best examination of Dulles's early years is Ronald W. Pruessen, John Foster Dulles: The Road to Power (NY, 1982).
  5. See, for example, United States Delegation, Berlin to Department of State, January 26, 1954, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1952-1954 (Washington, 1986) 7: 829 (hereafter cited as FR followed by year and volume number).
  6. John Foster Dulles, War, Peace and Change (New York, 1939). "The thoughts herein expressed are the result of much thinking and study since the Paris Peace Conference of 1919," Dulles began his book. Ibid., ix.
  7. Dulles to William E. Borah, April 3, 1939," "Borah, William E.--1939," John Foster Dulles Papers, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (hereafter, DP--Princeton).
  8. Leonard Mosely, Dulles: A Biography of Eleanor, Allen, and John Foster Dulles and their Family Network (NY, 1978), 89-100. For Dulles's references to Germany as a dynamic country, in contrast to Britain and France, and his perspective on the Munich conference, see War, Peace and Change , 68, 91-92, 97, 146-48. 154-55. 162.
  9. "A Christian Message on World Order from the International Round Table of Christian Leaders," issued by the Commission to Study the Bases of a Just and Durable Peace, July 1943, "Church Activities--1943," DP--Princeton. See also memorandum of conference with the president, March 26, 1943, "Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America--Commission to Study the Bases of a Just and Durable Peace--1943," ibid.
  10. Mark G. Toulouse, The Transformation of Dulles: From Prophet of Realism to Priest of Nationalism (Macon, GA, 1985), 10.
  11. Louis L. Gerson, John Foster Dulles (New York, 1967), 25.
  12. Pruessen, Dulles , 221-37.
  13. Dulles to Henry P. Van Dusen, March 29, 1939, "Van Dusen, Henry P.--1939," DP-Princeton. The Dean of the Union Theological Seminary, Van Dusen was a longtime friend and frequent collaborator of Dulles with whom he regularly corresponded about ethics and religion.
  14. Dulles to Clark M. Eichelberger, October 25, 1943, "Eichelberger, Clark M.--1943," DP--Princeton.
  15. Dulles wrote prolifically about his philosophical and political theories, especially after the collapse of the global economy triggered progressively more frequent and fundamental challenges to the Versailles system. They are synthesized in War, Peace and Change . The book represented the culmination of a series of Dulles's works, particularly "The Road to Peace," Atlantic Monthly 156 (October 1935): 492-99, and "The Problem of Peace in a Dynamic World," Religion in Life 6 (Spring 1937): 191-207; and his March 19, 1936, Stafford Little Foundation address at Princeton University, "Peaceful Change within the Society of Nations," located in the file by the same title, DP--Princeton.
  16. Dulles, War, Peace and Change , passim.
  17. Dulles to the Right Honorable Viscount Astor, February 18, 1943, "Astor, Waldorf--1953," JFDP-Princeton; Dulles to Arthur Hays Sulzberger, October 21, 1943, "Sulzberger, Arthur Hays--1943," ibid.; Dulles, War or Peace (New York, 1950).
  18. Dulles to Astor, February 18, 1943; Dulles address, "The Balance of Power," March 10, 1950, "Soviet Union and Communist Party," DP-Princeton; Dulles redraft of Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America statement on "Soviet-U.S. Tension," enclosed with Dulles to Walter W. Van Kirk, August 15, 1946, "Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America,--1946," ibid.; Dulles address, "Foreign Policy--Ideals, Not Deals," February 10, 1947, "Re: Church Activities--1947," ibid.; Dulles address, "The Christian Citizen in a Changing World," August 22, 1948, "Soviet Union and Communist Party--1948," ibid.; Dulles address, "For a Spiritual Offensive: An Appeal for a Dynamic Foreign Policy Under the Moral Law," Princeton Alumni Weekly , March 7, 1952, 11-12, "Korea--1952," ibid.; Dulles, War or Peace , 16, 233-41, 262.
  19. Memorandum to Dewey, "General Observations," October 26, 1948; "Foreign Policy--Ideals, Not Deals," February 10, 1947; Speech enclosed with JFD to Thomas E. Dewey, August 15, 1947; "The Defense of Freedom," May 6, 1948; Dulles untitled top secret memorandum, May 18, 1950, "China, People's Republic of--1950," DP--Princeton; "U.S. and Russia Could Agree But for Communist Party's Crusade: An Interview with John Foster Dulles, U.S. News & World Report , January 21, 1949, 33.
  20. Dulles address, "American Tradition," March 11, 1948, "Re Church Activities--1948," DP--Princeton.
  21. Dulles, "U.S. and Russia Could Agree But for Communist Party's Crusade", 35; Dulles to Vandenberg, September 12, 1946, "Vandenberg, Arthur H.--1946," DP-Princeton; Dulles address, "Appraisal of United States' Foreign Policy," February 5, 1945, "Re Speech by JFD, February 5, 1945," ibid.
  22. Dulles, War or Peace , 236; Dulles address, "Foreign Policy-Ideals, Not Deals," February 10, 1947.
  23. Council of Foreign Relations, "Digest of Discussion, Marshall Plan Group," February 2, 1948, "Marshall Plan--1948," ibid; Dulles address, "Christian Responsibility for Peace," May 4, 1948, "Re Church Activities--1948," ibid.
  24. Dulles Address, "Foreign Policy-Ideals, Not Deals;" Dulles, War or Peace , 233-41.
  25. Dulles did not mention the Soviet Union in War, Peace and Change .
  26. Dulles to Astor, February 18, 1943; Dulles to Sulzberger, October 21, 1943; Dulles to Thomas E. Dewey, January 26, 1944, quoted in Pruessen, Dulles , 270.
  27. Dulles to Sulzberger, October 21, 1943; Dulles to John C. Higgins," December 4, 1945, "Higgins, John C.--1945," DPP--Princeton; Dulles to Carle C. Conway, December 15, 1943, "Conway, Carle C.--1943," ibid.; Dulles to Henry Luce, September 29, 1943, "Luce, Henry R.--1943," ibid.; Dulles to Laird Bell, March 27, 1945, "Bell, Laird--1945," ibid.; Dulles to Edward C. Carter, January 22, 1947, "Nehru, Jawaharlal--1947," ibid. For Toynbee's influence on Dulles, see Pruessen, Dulles , 306-07,
  28. Dulles to Henry P. Van Dusen, November 17, 1941, "Van Dusen, Henry P.," ibid.; Dulles to Lionel Curtis, September 19, 1944, "Curtis, Lionel--1944," ibid. Dulles to Astor, February 18, 1943.
  29. Dulles believed that its effort and sacrifice entitled the Soviet Union to special considerations in Eastern Europe and reacted enthusiastically to the Yalta conference. See Dulles to Raymond L. Buell, February 13, 1945, "Federal Council of Churches--1945," ibid.; Dulles, "A Personal Appraisal of the Crimea Conference," February 26, 1945, "Re: Yalta Conference--1945," ibid.
  30. Extract from notes dictated in advance of meeting of Commission on a Just and Durable Peace, November 8, 1947, "Byrnes, James F.--1945," ibid.
  31. Dulles to Higgins, December 4, 1945. The literature on atomic diplomacy is surveyed in J. Samuel Walker, "The Decision to Use the Bomb: A Historiographical Update," Diplomatic History 14 (Winter 1990): 97-114. See also "Hiroshima in History and Memory: A Symposium," Diplomatic History 19 (Spring 1995): 197-365. Dulles's logic illustrates the psychological "inherent bad faith model" scholars have used to explain his perceptions of the Soviets once secretary of state. See, for example, Ole R. Hosti, "Cognitive Dynamics and Images of the Enemy: Dulles and Russia," in David J. Finlay, et al., Enemies in Politics (Chicago, 1967), 25-96; Deborah Welch Larson, "Crisis Prevention and the Austrian State Treaty," International Organization 41 (Winter 1987): 27-60.
  32. Dulles, "What I've Learned About the Russians," Colliers , March 12, 1949, 25, 57; Dulles to The Right Honorable Hector McNeil, M.P., May 3, 1948, "Soviet Union and the Communist Party--1948," DP--Princeton. Dulles made repeated references to Problems of Leninism when analyzing Soviet behavior. In the chapter of his 1950 book War or Peace pointedly entitled "Know Your Enemy," he argued that it was a more authoritative "guide to [Bolshevik] action" than the writings of Marx, Engles, or Lenin. Dulles, War or Peace , 7.
  33. Dulles to Alice Hill Byrne, September 12, 1946, "Soviet Union and the Communist Party--1946," DP-Princeton.
  34. Dulles, "Thoughts on Soviet Foreign Policy," Life 20 (June 3, 1946), 112ff; and June 10, 1946, 118ff.
  35. Dulles to William Kostka, September 27, 1946, "Re Look Magazine Forum--1946," DP-Princeton; Dulles address to Philadelphia Foreign Policy Association, March 1, 1946, "Foreign Policy Association--1946," ibid.
  36. Dulles, "Thoughts on Soviet Foreign Policy" (part 1), 113-118, 123; Dulles address, "The United Nations--Its Challenge to America," February 22, 1946, "Speech by Dulles, February 22, 1946," DPP; Dulles address to Philadelphia Foreign Policy Association, March 1, 1946.
  37. Dulles, "What I've Learned About the Russians," Colliers (March 12, 1949), 25, 57; Minutes of Council of Foreign Ministers Meeting [CFM], June 6, 1947, "Council of Foreign Ministers Meetings--1947," DP-Princeton.
  38. Dulles, "Why Russia Cries 'War,'" Talks 13 (January 1948), "Miscellaneous--1948," ibid.
  39. "U.S. and Russia Could Agree But for Communist Party's Crusade," 33-34; Dulles address, "The Christian Citizen in a Changing World;" Dulles address, "Our International Responsibilities," June 4, 1950, "Speech by Dulles, June 4, 1940," DP-Princeton;" Dulles address "Not War, Not Peace," January 17, 1948, "Council of Foriegn Ministers--1948," ibid.
  40. Dulles to A.J. Muste, June 17, 1946, "Muste, A.J.--1946," ibid.; "Improving Relations with Russia: An Interview with John Foster Dulles," U.S. News & World Report , July 8, 1949, 31; "The Balance of Power," March 10, 1950; "The Strategy of Soviet Communism" March 14, 1950. Representing the Commission on a Just and Durable Peace, Dulles, along with Federal Council of Churches president Bishop G. Bromley Oxnam, did issue a statement immediately following the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki concerning the impact of atomic weapons on the future conduct of international relations. See statement for publication in morning papers, August 10, 1945, "Atomic Weapons--1945," DP-Princeton.
  41. "The Defense of Freedom;" "Christian Responsibility for Peace;" "American Tradition;" "Our International Responsibilities." This view of war contrasts sharply with Dulles's pre-Cold War belief that at times war had "been of benefit to mankind and the only way in which that benefit could have been achieved." See Dulles to Clark M. Eichelberger, October 25, 1943, "Eichelberger, Clark M.," DP-Princeton.
  42. Dulles, "Christian Responsibility for Peace."
  43. Ibid.
  44. Dulles to Arthur Vandenberg, September 28, 1948, "Italy--1948," DP-Princeton.
  45. Dulles, "Europe and the Atlantic Pact," Philadelphia Evening Bulletin Forum , March 23, 1949, "North Atlantic Pact--1949," ibid.
  46. Dulles, "Thoughts on Soviet Foreign Policy" (part 2), 119; Dulles redraft of Federal Council of Churches statement enclosed with Dulles to Van Kirk, August 15, 1946; Dulles, "Our International Responsibilities."
  47. Pruessen, Dulles , 454; quoted in Harry S. Truman, Memoirs: Years of Trial and Hope (Garden City, NY, 1956), 336; Department of State Press Release, May 29, 1951," "Soviet Union and the Communist Party--1951," DP-Princeton.
  48. Speech draft enclosed with Dulles to Dewey, August 15, 1947; Memorandum to Dewey re: Foreign Policy, "General Observations," October 26, 1948, "Dewey, Thomas E.--1948," ibid.; "For a Spiritual Offensive;" Dulles statement before the Foreign Relations Committee of the United States Senate, May 4, 1949.
  49. "The Defense of Freedom;" "Christian Responsibility for Peace;" "American Tradition;" "Our International Responsibilities."
  50. Dulles to James P. Pope, April 28, 1942; "Our International Responsibilities;" "American Tradition;" "Foreign Policy-Ideals, Not Deals;" Speech draft enclosed with Dulles to Dewey, August 15, 1947.
  51. "The Defense of Freedom;" "Christian Responsibility for Peace;" "Our International Responsibilities." On traditional U.S. military doctrine, see Russell F. Weigley, The American Way of War: A History of United States Strategy and Policy (Bloomington, 1977).
  52. "Notes on Foreign Policy," June 29, 1949, enclosed with Dulles to Homer Ferguson, June 28, 1949, "Ferguson, Homer--1949," DP--Princeton; "U.S. and Russia Could Agree But for Communist Party's Crusade," January 21, 1949, 33-34; memorandum of conversation with Lovett, August 28, 1948, "Lovett, Robert A.--1948," DP--Princeton. For Dulles's longstanding concern with America's prestige and the relationship between commitments and resources, see Dulles to Thomas Debevoise, April 30, 1940, "Debevoise, Thomas M.--1950," DP-Princeton.
  53. Jean Smith, Lucius D. Clay: An American Life (New York, 1990), 416-18.
  54. The ECSC was formed in 1951; France killed the EDC in 1954.
  55. Dulles untitled secret memorandum, March 7, 1947, "Germany--1947," DP-Princeton; Dulles to Charles Edmundson, May 20, 1947," "Edmundson, Charles--1947," ibid.; minutes of CFM meeting, June 6, 1947, "Council of Foreign Ministers Meeting--1947," ibid.; Dulles to Vandenberg, September 12, 1946, "Vandenberg, Arthur H.--1946," ibid; Dulles to Vandenberg, July 21, 1947, "Vandenberg, Arthur H.--1947," ibid.; "Item C," copy of memo of secret meeting at Blair House between [George] Marshall, [Robert] Lovett, Vandenberg, and Dulles re reference to the possible North Atlantic Treaty, April 27, 1948, "Vandenberg, Arthur H.--1948," ibid.; Dulles memorandum to Allen Dulles, January 19, 1950, "Dulles, Allen W.--1950," ibid.; Dulles to Jean Monnet, May 23, 1950, "Monnet, Jean--1950," ibid.
  56. Dulles, "Improving Relations with Russia," 31-33; Dulles statement before the SFRC, May 4, 1949; "Transcript of CBS "Capitol Cloakroom," June 29, 1949, "Berlin--1949," DP-Princeton; "What I've Learned About the Russians," 25, 57.
  57. John Foster Dulles, War or Peace , 242.
  58. Dulles address, "The Strategy of Soviet Communism," March 14, 1950, "Soviet Union and Communist Party--1950," DP-Princeton; Dulles address, "Our International Responsibilities," June 4, 1950.
  59. Dulles statement before the Foreign Relations Committee of the United States Senate, May 4, 1949, "North Atlantic Pact--1949," DP-Princeton.
  60. Dulles, War or Peace , 75-76; Council of Foreign Relations Study Group Digest of Discussion, "Japanese Peace Treaty Problems," October 23, 1950, "Japan and Japanese Peace Treaty--1950," DP--Princeton. See also Dulles address, "Strategy for the Pacific," March 14, 1951, "Speech by Dulles, March 14, 1951," ibid.; Dulles address, "The Free East and the Free West," December 2, 1951, Department of State Press Release, November 29, 1951, "Soviet Union and the Communist Party--1951," ibid.; Dulles to Chester Bowles, March 10, 1952, "Bowles, Chester--1952," ibid.; Dulles address to World Affairs Council of Seattle, September 18, 1952, "Containment Policy--1952," ibid.
  61. "To Save Humanity from the Abyss," NYT Magazine , July 30, 1950, reproduction in "Soviet Union and Communist Party--1950," DP-Princeton; Dulles memorandum to Pierre Crevesse, October 27, 1950, Japan: Japanese Peace Treaty--1950," ibid.; Dulles [untitled] top secret memorandum, May 18, 1950, "China, People's Republic of--1950," ibid.; memorandum of conversation with Dean Acheson, Frank Pace, and others of the State Department, July 1, 1950, "Acheson, Dean--1950," ibid; Dulles address, "Where Are We?" December 29, 1950, "Soviet Union and the Communist Party--1950," ibid.; Dulles to Ferdinand Mayer, November 9, 1950, "Mayer, Ferdinand L.--1950," ibid;
  62. Dulles address, "Where Are We?" See also Dulles address, "Can We Stop Russian Imperialism," November 27, 1951, "Speech: November 27, 1951," ibid.
  63. The literature on massive retaliation is too large to cite inclusively. John Gaddis has produced the most authoritative studies: Strategies of Containment , 127-63; and "The Unexpected John Foster Dulles: Nuclear Weapons," Communism, and the Russians," in Immerman, Dulles and the Diplomacy of the Cold War , 49-58. The conventional critiques are represented by Hans Morgenthau, "The Dulles Doctrine: 'Instant Retaliation,'" New Republic , March 29, 1954," 10-14; William W. Kaufmann, " The Requirements of Deterrence," in idem., ed., Military Policy and National Security (Princeton, 1956), 12-38, and Henry Kissinger, Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy (New York, 1957).
  64. Dulles to Mayer, November 9, 1950; Transcript of "Meet the Press," February 10, 1952, "Speech [Interview] by Dulles, February 10, 1952," DP--Princeton; Dulles to Chester Bowles, March 25, 1952, "Bowles, Chester,--1952," ibid.; Dulles to Thomas K. Philips, February 1, 1952, "Containment Policy--1952," ibid. As the Cold War progressively was defined as a bipolar nuclear face-off, the concept of manipulating of risk became a staple of international relations theory. See in particular Thomas Schelling, Arms and Influence (New Haven, 1966). John Gaddis explores Dulles's "wedge theory" in "Dividing Adversaries: The United States and International Communism, 1945-1958," in Gaddis, The Long Peace: Inquiries into the History of the Cold War (New York, 1987), 147-94. We will discuss this strategic concept more thoroughly later.
  65. Memorandum to Dewey, "General Observations," October 26, 1948 (emphasis in original); Dulles to Eustace Seligman, January 9, 1951, "Seligman, Eustace--1951," DP--Princeton; State Department press release re: Dulles address, May 30, 1951, "Soviet Union and the Communist Party--1951," ibid.;
  66. Dulles address, "The United Nations--Its Challenge to America," February 22, 1946, "Speech by Dulles, September 22, 1946," DP--Princeton; Dulles to Kennan, October 2, 1952, "Kennan, George F.--1952, ibid. In this letter Dulles referred to a speech he delivered on September 26, 1952. This speech is located in "Republican Presidential Campaign--1952," ibid. For Kennan's reply, see Kennan to Dulles, October 22, 1952, and enclosed "observations" dated August 18, 1952," "Kennan, George F.--1952," ibid. See also Kennan, American Diplomacy, 1900-1950 (Chicago, 1951).
  67. Dulles to William G. Coxhead, June 4, 1947, "Federal Council of the Churches of Christ: Commission for the Study of a Just and Durable Peace--1947," DP-Princeton; "The Defense of Freedom;" "Strategy of Soviet Communism;" Dulles, War or Peace , 242-52; Dulles letter to the editors of The Commonweal , September 5, 1952, "Containment Policy--1952," DP--Princeton.
  68. Untitled and unsigned State Department document, December 4, 1952, Subject Series, "State Department--Personnel," DP--Eisenhower.
  69. Dulles to Herter, December 22, 1948, "Herter--Christian--1948," DP--Princeton.

Chapter 4: Campaigning for Security with Solvency

  1. Eisenhower to Dulles, June 20, 1952, DDEP 13:1254.
  2. Entries for March 5, June 14, 1952, Eisenhower Diaries , 189, 195. See also, Herbert S. Parmet, Eisenhower and the American Crusades (New York, 1972), 45-149; Stephen E. Ambrose, Eisenhower: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect, 1890-1952 (NY, 1983), 529-72; Robert Divine, Foreign Policy and Presidential Elections, 1952-1960 (NY, 1974), 3-85; Chester J. Pach, Jr. and Elmo Richardson, The Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower (Lawrence, KA, 1991), 20-27.
  3. Entries for June 1, 1953 and January 18, 1954, in Ferrell, Eisenhower Diaries , 240, 269. The best biography of Taft remains James T. Patterson, Mr. Republican: A Biography of Robert A. Taft (Boston, 1972).
  4. Taft in fact did not fully subscribe to the "Fortress America" concept advocated by those Republicans who rallied behind former President Hoover. See Robert A. Taft, A Foreign Policy for Americans (Garden City, NY, 1951).
  5. Eisenhower, At Ease , 371-72; Interview with Dwight D. Eisenhower, Columbia Oral History Collection, Columbia University, New York, NY; Greenstein, Hidden-Hand Presidency , 49.
  6. Parmet, Eisenhower , 39, 59, 99-101.
  7. Eisenhower address in Philadelphia, September 4, 1952, New York Times , September 5, 1952. Prior to the "official" opening of the campaign, on August 25 Eisenhower had spoken at the American Legion Convention in New York City. It also concerned foreign policy. See also Eisenhower's comments immediately following his nomination, New York Times, August 12, 1952.
  8. On this analogy see in particular Piers Brendon, Ike: His Life & Times (NY, 1986), 220-21.
  9. Duane Tananbaum, The Bricker Amendment Controversy: A Test of Eisenhower's Political Leadership (Ithaca, 1988). Domestically, Truman's decision in April 1952 to seize control of the steel industry on the basis of his power as commander-in-chief provided further impetus for the Bricker amendment.
  10. Eisenhower to Dulles, June 20, 1952, DDEP , 13:1255.
  11. A corps of wordsmiths led by Time-Life veterans Emmet J. Hughes and C. D. Jackson drafted most of Eisenhower's addresses, but the final speeches were very much his own.
  12. For an example that illustrates how delicately Eisenhower handled this issue, see his address in Flint, Michigan, October 1, 1952, New York Times , October 2, 1952. As Eisenhower underscored, moreover, Michigan was the home state of the godfather of Republican support for NATO, Arthur Vandenberg.
  13. "What Men and Platforms Say," New York Times , July 27, 1952; Eisenhower address in Philadelphia, September 4, 1952; Eisenhower foreign policy statement issued on October 4, 1952, ibid., October 5, 1952.
  14. See, for example, Eisenhower address in Flint, Michigan, October 1, 1952.
  15. SCFR, Hearing on Dulles Nomination , 8.
  16. ; Divine, Foreign Policy and Presidential Elections , 29-36.
  17. Parmet, Eisenhower , 103.
  18. Eisenhower, Mandate for Change (Garden City, NY, 1963), 41.
  19. Divine, Foreign Policy and Presidential Elections , 64; David M. Oshinky, A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy (New York, 1983), 234-38.
  20. U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, Nomination of John Fostere Dulles, Secretary of State-Designate: Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations , 83rd Cong., 1st Sess., January 15, 1953, 15-17.
  21. For evidence that Eisenhower had reason to be concerned, see Norman A. Graebner, The New Isolationism: A Study in Politics and Foreign Policy since 1950 (New York, 1956).
  22. Eisenhower to Dulles, June 20, 1952, 1254.
  23. Dulles, "A Policy of Boldness," Life , May 19, 1952, 146+. This article was central to the Republican campaign, and was reflected in the foreign policy planks of the G.O.P. platform, much of which Dulles wrote. Indicative of its significance, key party leaders read it in draft, including Eisenhower.
  24. Dulles to Walter Millis and enclosure, May 23, 1952, "Millis, Walter--1952," DP-Princeton; Dulles, "Policy of Boldness," 151.
  25. Eisenhower to Dulles, April 15, 1952, DDEP 13:1179.
  26. Dulles to Eisenhower, April 25, 1952, "Dulles, John Foster," 16-52 file.
  27. Dulles, "Policy of Boldness," 152. See also the draft "Foreign Policy Memorandum by John Foster Dulles, 4/11/52 Corrected to 5/1/52, "Dulles, John Foster, 1952," Selected Correspondence and Related Material, Allen W. Dulles Papers, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.
  28. Eisenhower to Dulles, June 20, 1952, 1254-55; Parmet, Eisenhower , 123; Divine, Foreign Policy and Presidential Elections , 35-6; C. L. Sulzberger, A Long Row of Candles: Memoirs and Diaries, 1934-1954 (New York, 1969), 770; 1952 Republican Platform, National Party Platforms, 1840-1956 , compiled by Kirk H. Porter and Donald Bruce Johnson (Urbana, IL, 1956), 499.
  29. For example see Eisenhower address in Baltimore, Maryland, September 25, 1952, Speech Series, AWF.
  30. Quoted in Hughes, Ordeal of Power , 28.
  31. Eisenhower address at Baltimore Maryland, September 25, 1952, "Sept. 15, 1952--Sept.25, 1952," Speech Series, Whitman File.
  32. Dulles, "Policy of Boldness," 160, 157. See also Gaddis, The Long Peace , 174-75.
  33. Dulles to Walter Millis and enclosure, May 23, 1952.
  34. Athan G. Theoharis, The Yalta Myths: An Issue in U.S. Politics, 1945-1955 (Columbia, MO, 1970).
  35. Eisenhower address to the American Legion Convention in New York, August 25, 1952, "July 12, 1952--September 14, 1952," Speech Series, Whitman File.
  36. 1952 Republican Platform, National Party Platforms , 497-99.
  37. Harold Callender, "Europe is Puzzled by G.O.P. Platform," New York Times , July 18, 1952.
  38. Parmet, Eisenhower , 124-25. For evidence that Dulles learned his lesson, see SCFR, Hearing on Dulles Nomination , 5-6.
  39. Eisenhower address, August 25, 1952 (authors' emphasis); Eisenhower address in Philadelphia, September 4, 1952.
  40. Eisenhower address in San Franciso California, October 8, 1952, "September 26, 1952," Speech Series, Whitman file.
  41. Ibid.
  42. Ibid.
  43. W.H. Lawrence, "Eisenhower for Korean War But Says Blunders Led to It," New York Times , August 22, 192; Burton I. Kaufman, The Korean War: Challenges in Crisis, Credibility, and Command (New York, 1986), 301-02.
  44. Eisenhower address in Detroit, October 14, 1952, New York Times , October 25, 1952.
  45. Eisenhower address in Baltimore, September 25, 1952; Eisenhower address in San Francisco, October 8, 1952.
  46. Dean Acheson, "Crisis in Asia: An Examination of United States Policy," January 12, 1950, Department of State Bulletin 22 (January 16, 1950), 111-17. See also idem., Present at the Creation , 691.
  47. Eisenhower address in Philadelphia, September 4, 1952; Eisenhower address at the New York City Waldorf Astoria Hotel, October 16, 1952, New York Times , October 17, 1952; Eisenhower address in San Francisco, October 8, 1952.
  48. Eisenhower address in San Francisco, October 8, 1952. See also Eisenhower addess in Champaign, Illinois, October 2, 1952, New York Times , October 3, 1952; foreign policy statement issued on October 4, 1952.
  49. Eisenhower address in Detroit, October 24, 1952.
  50. Ibid.
  51. Ibid.
  52. Marquis Childs, Eisenhower: Captive Hero (NY, 1958), 159. As he explained shortly thereafter, the most he expected to accomplish by visiting Korea was to "find out from those on the spot what more could be done to improve our situation and what could help bring that tragic war to an end at the earliest moment compatible with the honor of the United States." Quoted in Rosemary Foot, The Wrong War: American Policy and the Dimensions of the Korean Conflict, 1950-1953 (Ithaca, 1985), 194. See also Eisenhower to Clifford Roberts, June 19, 1952, DDEP 12:1251.
  53. Eisenhower address in San Francisco, October 8, 1952; Eisenhower address in Baltimore, September 25, 1952.
  54. Eisenhower address in San Francisco, October 8, 1952.
  55. Eisenhower address in Baltimore, September 25, 1952.
  56. Eisenhower address in San Francisco, October 8, 1952.
  57. Eisenhower address in Baltimore, September 25, 1952.
  58. Gary W. Reichard, Politics as Usual: The Age of Truman and Eisenhower (New York, 1988), 82.
  59. Ibid.

Chapter 5: Organizing for National Security

  1. Memorandum of NSC discussion, February 17, 1954, FR, 1952-54 , 2:631.
  2. Eisenhower, Mandate for Change , 114.
  3. Dwight D. Eisenhower, "The Central Role of the President in the Conduct of Security Affairs," in Amos A. Jordon, ed., Issues of National Security in the 1970s: Essays Presented to Colonel George A. Lincoln on his Sixtieth Birthday (NY, 1967), 207.
  4. Ibid., 87.
  5. Entry for May 14, 1953, Ferrell, Eisenhower Diaries , 237.
  6. Eisenhower, Mandate for Change , 94-5; Arthur W. Radford, From Pearl Harbor to Vietnam: The Memoirs of Admiral Arthur W. Radford (Stanford, 1980), 302-305; Parmet, Eisenhower , 150-55; Stephen E. Ambrose, Eisenhower: The President (NY, 1984), 30-35.
  7. For the complete list of those who travelled with Eisenhower on the Helena , see Guest Quarters Commencing 8 December 1952, "Special Draft: Ending War in Korea," Emmet J. Hughes Papers, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. Inexplicably Eisenhower waited until late December to appoint Robert Cutler the White House special assistant for national security affairs. Hence he did not make the voyage. On C.D. Jackson, who will be discussed more extensively in subsequent chapters, see Blanche Wiesen Cook, The Declassified Eisenhower: A Divided Legacy (Garden City, NY, 1981), passim; and H. W. Brands, Jr., Cold Warriors: Eisenhower's Generation and American Foreign Policy (NY, 1988), 117-37.
  8. Eisenhower, Mandate for Change , 96; Radford, From Pearl Harbor to Vietnam , 305.
  9. Little documentation is available on these talks. Dulles's files contain but a few pages of handwritten notes of what he said in Hawaii, and there is nothing in the Eisenhower papers. The only other written source is "Reminiscences of Vice Admiral Means Johnston, Jr., Concerning Eisenhower's Visit to Iwo Jima, Korea, U.S.S. Helena , and Honolulu, Early December 1952," located in "A Brief Resume of the Life and Experiences of Arthur W. Radford, Admiral, United States Navy (Ret.)," February 4, 1966, Arthur W. Radford Collection, Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, Stanford, California, from which Stephen Jurika produced Radford's memoir. Johnston was Radford's flag secretary, but his reminiscences lack substance. See also Radford, From Pearl Harbor to Vietnam , 303-05.
  10. Summary of J.F.D. remarks at meeting with Eisenhower, Wilson, Brownell, Bradley, and Radford, Kaneohe, Hawaii, December 11, 1952, Subject Series, "S.S. Helena Notes," DP--Eisenhower (emphasis in the original).
  11. Notes, December 4, 1953, "Bermuda--President's Notes December 1953 (1)," International Series, Whitman File.
  12. Radford to David Lawrence, "Radford, Arthur," Correspondence, David Lawrence Papers, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ; Handwritten notes, February 2, 1953, WHO, Office of the Staff Secretary, Cabinet series, "C-2 (2), February 25 and March 6, 1953," DDEL.
  13. Quoted in Greenstein, Hidden-Hand Presidency , 108.
  14. See for example, W. Y. Elliott memorandum for Mr. Arthur S. Flemming, December 23, 1952, "NSC--Organization and Functions [1949-1953] (1)," NSC series, Adminstrative subseries, WHO, OSANSA]; Milton S. Eisenhower to Robert Cutler, "NSC--Organization and Functions [1949-1953] (2)," ibid. PACGO was not formally established until January 29, 1953, when Eisenhower signed his first Executive Order.
  15. Neil MacNeil and Harold W. Metz, The Hoover Report, 1953-1955 (New York, 1966).
  16. Untitled document, December 4, 1952, "State Department--Personnel," Subject series, DP--Princeton. Created by Public Law 162 in July 1947, the Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch, or first Hoover Commission, submitted its report to Congress in January 1949. "The State Department should concentrate on obtaining definition of proposed obectives for the United States in foreign affairs, on formulating proposed policies in conjunction with other departments and agencies to achieve those objectives, and on recommending the choice and timing of the use of various instruments to carry out foreign policies so formulated," it recommended. As "a general rule," it "should not be given responsibility for the operation of specific programs, whether overseas or at home." The Hoover Commission Report on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government (New York, 1949), 155-56.
  17. Eisenhower address [Baltimore, Maryland], September 25, 1952, "September 15-25, 1952 (3)," speech series, Whitman file.
  18. Robert Cutler, No Time for Rest (Boston, 1966), 275-92; Greenstein, Hidden-Hand Presidency , 125. For an example of Cutler's contribution to Eisenhower's reference to the NSC during a campaign speech, see his comments on Foreign Policy speech for San Francisco, 10/6/52, "October 8, 1952 San Francisco, California," Stephen Benedict Papers, Eisenhower Library.
  19. Proceedings of the Cabinet Meetings, January 12-13, 1953, "Cabinet Meeting January 12-13, 1953," Cabinet series, Whitman File.
  20. Proceedings of the Cabinet Meetings, January 12-13, 1953.
  21. Enclosed with Cutler to Eisenhower, December 27, 1952, "Cutler, Robert A., 192-54 (5)," Administration series, Whitman File. See also the sources listed in n.14.
  22. Marshall testimony, NSC Study, February 19, 1953, WHO, OSANSA, NSC series, Administrative subseries, "NSC--Organization and Functions [1949-1953] (5)," DDEL.
  23. Unless otherwise noted, the following discussion of the NSC organization is derived from ibid.; W. Barton Leach to Robert Cutler, January 19, 1953 [added to on January 28 before sending], WHO, OSANSA, "NSC--Organization and Functions [1949-1953] (3)," ibid.; W. Leach, "Observations on the NSC," February 3, 1953, ibid.; Charles E. Bohlen testimony, NSC Study, January 31, 1953, ibid.; James S. Lay, Jr., "Suggestions for Further Strengthening of the National Security Council," January 19, 1953, WHO, OSANSA, "NSC--Organization and Functions [1949-1953] (2)," ibid.; Notes of Study Group Conference, February 13, 1953, OSANSA, "NSC--Organization and Functions [1949-53] (4)," ibid.; George A. Morgan to Cutler, February 16, 1953, ibid; Notes of Study Group Conference, February 17, 1953, "NSC--Organization and Functions [1949-1953] (5)," ibid.; Paul H. Nitze memorandum to Cutler, February 17, 1953, ibid.; William Bundy to the Assistant Deputy Director/Intelligence, March 2, 1953," "NSC--Organization and Functions [1949-53] (6)," ibid.
  24. As will be discussed below, under Eisenhower both the JCS chair and director of the CIA attended the NSC regularly as advisors, and each meeting began with an oral briefing by the DCI. Cutler arranged special procedures for Eisenhower to receive personal briefings from his staff secretary. On this see Flow of Secret Information for President, February 4, 1953, attached to Cutler memorandum for the Record re: Intelligence Reports, March 12, 1953, "Special Assistant (Cutler) Memoranda, 1953 (1)," Executive Secretary Subject File Series, WHO, NSC Staff: Papers, Eisenhower Library. See also Andrew Goodpaster, "Organizing the White House," in Kenneth W. Thompson, The Eisenhower Presidency: Eleven Intimate Perspectives on Dwight D. Eisenhower (Lanham, MD, 1984), 65-66.
  25. During the campaign Eisenhower himself proposed calling upon "civilians of the highest capacity, integrity and dedication to public service" to inject "fresh point(s) of views" into the NSC deliberations. Eisenhower address in Baltimore, September 25, 1952.
  26. Cutler, No Time for Rest , 296.
  27. Elliott memorandum to Flemming, December 23, 1952 (emphasis in original).
  28. Eisenhower quoted in Notes of Study Group Conference, 13 February 1953; Cutler Report to the President, "Operations of National Security Council, January 1953 - April 1955, "April 1955 (1)," Special Assistant series, WHOSANSA.
  29. Cutler memorandum for the president, "Recommendations Regarding the National Security Council" and attached report, March 16, 1953, FR, 1952-54 , 2:245-57
  30. Eisenhower to Cutler, March 17, 1953, ibid., 257-58.
  31. The following account of the NSC's operation is derived from Townsend Hoopes memorandum to Robert Blum, n.d, "JC Numbered Documents (7)," PCIIA; FR , 2:245-57; Cutler Report to the President, April 1, 1956; Cutler statement before the Senate Appropriations Committee in support of the appropriation requested by the NSC for FY 1954, n.d., "Budget-NSC-Previous Years (1)," NSC series, Administrative subseries, WHOSANSA; Anna Kasten Nelson, "The 'Top of Policy Hill': President Eisenhower and the National Security Council," DH 7 (Fall 1983): 307-26
  32. Eisenhower, "The Central Role of the President in the Conduct of Security Affairs," in Amos A Jordon, Jr., ed., Issues in National Security in the 1970s (New York, 1967), 214; entry for December 6, 1960, Eisenhower Diaries , 379-80.
  33. Robert R. Bowie, "President and the Executive Branch," in Joseph S. Nye, Jr., ed., The Making of America's Soviet Policy (New Haven, 1984), 73.
  34. Cutler Report of Recommendations, March 16, 1953, 251.
  35. Cutler, "The NSC under Eisenhower," 112.
  36. Cutler Report of Recommendations, March 16, 1953, 249 (emphasis in original).
  37. The chairman of the National Security Resources Board, the predecessor to the ODM, was also a statutory member. Ultimately the administration transferred the NSRB statutory membership to ODM.
  38. Eisenhower, "The Central Role of the President," 217.
  39. Richard M. Nixon, Six Crises (New York, 1962), 158-59.
  40. Fred I. Greenstein and Richard H. Immerman, "What Did Eisenhower Tell Kennedy about Indochina? The Politics of Misperception," The Journal of American History 79 (September 1992): 568-87.
  41. Memorandum of NSC meeting, March 19, 1953, "137th meeting of the NSC," NSC series, AWF.
  42. Eisenhower to Robert Bowie, April 8, 1953 (authors' possession).
  43. Brief notes on Planning Board Meeting, May 6, 1953, CJCS 334 (NSC) 1953, RG 218.
  44. As on the NSC, the JCS and CIA had advisory representation on the Planning Board. Until its abolition, so did the Psychological Strategy Board. On occasions when deemed appropriate by either Cutler or Joseph Dodge, a representative of the Bureau of the Budget also attended Planning Board meetings.
  45. On the NSC organization as approved by Eisenhower, see Cutler's Report to the President, April 1, 1955; and his testimony to the Subcommittee on National Policy Machinery, in Henry M. Jackson, ed., The National Security Council: Jackson Subcommittee Papers on Policy-Making at the Presidential Level , NY, 1965), 111-39.
  46. James S. Lay, Jr.,, "Concept of the National Security Council and its Advisory and Subordinate Groups," October 15, 1953, "President's Papers 1953 (3), Special Assistant series, Presidential subseries, WHOSANSA.
  47. Memorandum of NSC meeting, March 19, 1953.
  48. Ibid.; Robert Cutler memorandum for Robert Bowie with copy for General John Gerhart, September 25, 1953, "Cutler's Memos--1953 (5)," Executive Secretary's Subject File series, WHONSC.
  49. Entry for March 1, 1954, Clarence Randall Journals, volume 1, "Washington After the Commission, Princeton University, CRP.
  50. Cutler recommendation to the president, March 16, 1953, FR, 1952-54 , 2:253.
  51. Note by Cutler, "Guidance From President on Conduct of Council Meetings, April 2, 1958, FR, 1958-60 , 3:58 (emphasis in original); Cutler memorandum to Eisenhower, April 7, 1958, ibid., 61.
  52. Informal note of Jackson Committee meeting, March 28, 1953, "Special Assistant (Cutler) memoranda, 1953 (1)," Executive Secretary's subject file series, WHO, NSC Staff: Papers [emphasis in original]; statement of NSC progress reports attached to James S. Lay, Jr., memorandum for the NSC, September 9, 1953, CCS 334 NSC (9-25-47) sec. 12, JCS records, RG 218; PCIIA report (Morgan, Taylor, Craig), May 21, 1953, "Correspondence File M (8)," PCIIA Records.
  53. Elmer B. Staats memorandum for the professional staff, OCB, September 29, 1954, "Budget--Federal (1) [October 1953-September 1954]," special assistant series, subject subseries, WHO, OSANSA.
  54. Proceedings of Cabinet Meetings, January 12-13, 1953; Eisenhower to James S. Lay, Jr., January 24, 1953, "President's Papers 1953 (9)," Special Assistant Series, Presidential subseries, WHO, OSANSA. In addition to William Jackson, its members included Cutler, C. D. Jackson, Sigurd Larmon, Gordon Gray, Roger Keyes, Barklie McKee Henry, and John C. Hughes. The executive secretary was Abbott Washburn.
  55. So named because of the chair, William Jackson, not as frequently believed. C. D. Jackson, who served on it as the State Department representative but, as Eisenower's first special assistant for Cold War operations, was the administration's most identifiable psychological warrior. The formal name of the Jackson Committee was the President's Committee on International Information Activities.
  56. Ten Points concerning the functionalization [sic] of "Cold War" psychological activities, attached to Barklie Henry memorandum to William H. Jackson, March 16, 1953, "Miscellaneous File Material--A-F (3)," PCIIA Records.
  57. Barlie Henry report of interview of Sir Frederick S. Bartlett, March 9, 1953, "Correspondence File C--Restricted," ibid.
  58. Robert Blum memorandum for Townsend Hoopes, March 31, 1953, "Miscellaneous File Material--M-P (5)," ibid.; Blum memorandum for William H. Jackson, April 13, 1953, ibid.; W. F. Millikan and W. W. Rostow, "Organization of the Government for the Conduct of Political Warfare," attached to Blum memorandum to all staff, "Miscellaneous File Material--A-F (2)," ibid.
  59. See especially Elliott memorandum for Flemming, December 23, 1952; Lay, "Suggestions for Further Strengthening of the National Security Council, January 19, 1953; Notes of Study Group Conference, February 13, 1952; Notes of Study Group Conference, February 17, 1953.
  60. For example see Townsend Hoopes memorandum to William H. Jackson, "Misc File Material--M-P (5)," PCIIA Records; PCIIA report (Morgan, Taylor, Craig), May 21, 1953, Correspondence File M (8)," ibid.
  61. Karl G. Harr, Jr., "Eisenhower's Approach to National Security Decisionmaking," in Thompson, Eisenhower Presidency , 93. It should be recalled that in the memorandum prepared prior to the Hotel Commodore meeting, Dulles had expressed a parallel concern.
  62. Report to the President by The President's Committee on Informational Information Activities, June 30, 1953, FR, 1952-54 , 2:1854-55. Hereafter cited as Jackson Committee Report.
  63. Ibid., 1855-57; Statement on NSC Progress reports attached to James S. Lay, Jr., Memorandum for the National Security Council, September 9, 1953, CCS 334 NSC (9-25-47), sec. 12, RG 218. The OCB assumed reponsibility for these progress reports in 1954.
  64. Jackson Committee Report, 1795-1867.
  65. Memorandum of NSC discussion, July 2, 1953, FR, 1952-54 , 2:1877-78; press release, July 8, 1953, "Time, Inc. File: Jackson Report," Papers of C. D. Jackson, DDEL.
  66. Robert Blum memorandum for Townsend Hoopes, March 31, 1953, "Miscellaneous File Material--M-P (5)," PCIIA Records; Blum memorandum for William H. Jackson, April 13, 1953, ibid.; Cutler memorandum for Elmer B. Staats, March 3, 1954, "Chronological--Richard L. Hall 1954 [March] (4)," NSC series, Administrative subseries, WHO, OSANSA.
  67. Cutler memorandum for Elmer B. Staats, March 3, 1954, "Chronological--Richard Hall 1954 [March] (4)," NSC series, administrative subseries, WHO, OSANSA; Vincent H. Everding [National War College], "The Formulation and Management of United States National Policy, June 1, 1956, "E--General (2)," Special Assistant series, Subject subseries, WHO, OSANSA; William Jackson memorandum for Eisenhower, December 31, 1956," "Jackson, William (1)," Administration series, Whitman File; Dwight D. Eisenhower, The White House Years: Waging Peace, 1956-1961 (Garden City, NY, 1965), 634; Henderson, Managing the Presidency , 127-132; Harr, "Eisenhower's Approach to National Security," 94-95, 99-101.

Chapter 6: How Much is Enough

  1. Statement by General of the Armies Dwight D. Eisenhower Before an Informal Meeting of the Congress at the Library of Congress, February 1, 1951, U.S. Cong., Senate, Hearings Before the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Armed Services on S. Con. Res. 8, A Concurrent Resolution Relative to the Assignment of Ground Forces of the United States to Duty in the European Area, 82nd Cong., 1st Sess. (Washington, 1951), 2.
  2. "Brief of Approved U.S. National Security Objectives, Policies and Programs with Respect to the USSR (NSC 20/4, NSC 68/2 and NSC 135/3;" and "Informal Condensation of NSC 20/4, 68/2, 135/3, and 141 (for discussion purposes at NSC meetings)," enclosures "A" and "B" to James Lay memorandum to the NSC, February 6, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:223-230.
  3. Ibid.
  4. "Some Major Questions Raised by a Review of Approved National Security Policies," enclosure "C" to Lay memorandum to the NSC, February 6, 1953, ibid., 230-31.
  5. Statement of General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower, April 2, 1948, U.S. Cong. House, Hearings Before the Committee on Armed Services on Universal Military Training, 80th Cong., 2nd Sess. (Washington, 1948), 986.
  6. Inaugural address, January 20, 1953, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1953 (Washington, 1960), 1-8.
  7. Charles J. V. Murphy, "The Eisenhower Shift: Part I," Fortune, January 1956, 87.
  8. Quoted in Hughes, Ordeal of Power, 28.
  9. Cabinet notes, March 20, 1953, "C-3 (1), March 20, 1953," Cabinet Series, WHO, Office of the Staff Secretary; Department of Defense directive, July 26, 1954, attached to Charles E. Wilson to David Lawrence, January 19, 1956, "Wilson, Charles E.," Correspondence, Lawrence Papers; Arthur W. Radford memorandum to JCS, September 12, 1955, and attached John K. Gerhard memorandum to Radford, August 10, 1955, CJCS 334 National Security Council (12 September 1955), Arthur W. Radford Files, 1953-1957, Record Group 218; Robert J. Watson, History of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 5: The Joint Chiefs of Staff and National Policy, 1953-1954 (Washington, 1986), 15-16; Jurika, Radford Memoirs, 318; E. Bruce Geelhoed, Charles E. Wilson and the Controversy at the Pentagon, 1953 to 1957 (Detroit, 1979), 156; Duane Windsor, "Eisenhower's New Look Reexamined: The View from Three Decades," in Joann P. Krieg, ed., Dwight D. Eisenhower: Soldier, President, Statesman (Westport, CT, 1987), 156.
  10. Entry of May 14, 1953, in Ferrell, Eisenhower Diaries, 237.
  11. Eisenhower, Annual Message to Congress on the State of the Union, February 2, 1953, PPP, Eisenhower, 1953, 15-17.
  12. Memorandum of NSC meeting, September 24, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:469.
  13. Watson, JCS History, 60.
  14. J.K. Gerhart memorandum for Omar Bradley, January 30, 1953, CCS 381 U.S. (1-31-50) sec. 23, RG 218; Deputy Secretary of Defense Frank C. Nash memorandum, February 4, 1953, CD 381 (General) 1953, Office of the Secretary of Defense Central Decimal File, RG 330.
  15. The NSC had actually met a week earlier so that Cutler could announce Eisenhower's intention to devote the February 11 meeting to a discussion of existing national security policy and to alert the members that they should read beforehand the summaries of NSC 20/4, NSC 68/2, NSC 135/3, and NSC 141 he would circulate. Record of Actions by the NSC at its meeting on February 4, 1953, "Records of Action NSC 1953 (1)," NSC series, Whitman File.
  16. Memorandum of NSC discussion, February 11, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:236-37.
  17. Ibid.
  18. Watson, JCS History, 2-3. On February 10 NSC Executive Secretary James Lay distributed to the NSC members a draft of NSC 142 that included all its sections except the "Military Program." Already completed were reports on the "Mobilization Program," prepared by the Office of Defense Mobilization; the "Mutual Security Program," prepared by the Office of the director for Mutual Security; the "Civil Defense Program," prepared by the Federal Civil Defense Administration; the "Stockpiling Program," prepared by the Department of Defense; the "Psychological Program," prepared by the PSB; the "Foreign Intelligence Program," prepared by the CIA in concurred in by the Intelligence Advisory Committee; and the "Internal Security Program," prepared jointly by the Interdepartmental Intelligence Conference and the Interdepartmental Committee on Internal Security. Lay Note to the NSC, February 10, 1953, "NSC 142-Status of US National Security Programs (1)," Status of Projects Subseries, NSC Series, WHO, OSANSA.
  19. J.S.P.C. 851/76, Report by the Joint Strategic Plans Committee, January 31, 1953, CCS 381 U.S. (1-31-50) sec. 23, RG 218; Joint Strategic Plans Committee (JSPC) 851/81, February 16, 1953, CCS 370 (8-19-45) sec. 39, ibid.
  20. Chief of Naval Operations memo to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, February 10, 1953, CCS 381 U.S. (1-31-50) sec. 24, RG 218.
  21. J.S.P.C. 851/76, January 31, 1953; J.S.P.C. 851\81, February 16, 1953.
  22. Memorandum of NSC discussion on February 18, 1953, February 19, 1953, "132nd Meeting of the NSC," NSC Series, Whitman File.
  23. Ibid.; Dodge to Humphrey, February 13, 1953, "President's Meeting with Civilian Consultants, March 31, 1953," NSC Series, Subject Subseries, WHO, OSANSA; Humphrey to Dodge, February 16, 1953, ibid.
  24. Memorandum of NSC discussion, February 18, 1953.
  25. Ibid.
  26. Watson, JCS History, 5-6; memorandum of NSC discussion, February 25, 1953, February 26, 1953, "134th Meeting of the NSC," NSC Series, Whitman File. On February 24 the NSC had met to discuss British-Egyptian negotiations over the Suez Canal.
  27. Eisenhower address in Baltimore, September 25, 1952.
  28. Memorandum of NSC discussion, February 25, 1953.
  29. Anderson was a partner in the law firm of Baker, Botts, Andres & Parish; Black, president of Pacific Gas & Electric; Cowles, publisher of the Minneapolis Star & Tribune; Holman, president of Standard Oil of New Jersey; Mallott, president of Cornell University; Robertson, president of the Brotherhood of Railroad Firemen and Enginemen; Thomas, president of Monsanto Chemical.
  30. Memorandum of discussion at the NSC meeting of March 4, 1953, March 5, 1953, "135th meeting of the NSC," NSC series, Whitman File,
  31. Ibid. Dodge proposed that virtually the entire remainder of the savings could be found in the mutual security program.
  32. Ibid.; Draft [for presentation to Congressional leaders], June 5, 1953, "Legislative Program and Congressional Relations June 1953-June 1957 (2)," NSC series, Subject subseries, WHO, OSANSA.
  33. Lay Note to the NSC on Status of United States Programs for National Security as of December 31, 1952, March 6, 1953, and NSC 142, n.d., both in "NSC 142-Status of US National Security Programs (1)," Status of Projects Subseries, NSC Series, WHO, OSANSA.
  34. Ibid.
  35. Joint Strategic Plans Committee 851/84, Effect of Approaching a Balanced Budget in FY 1954 and Achieving a Balanced Budget in FY 1955, March 16, 1953, CCS 370(8-19-45) Sec. 40, RG 218; General Omar N. Bradley for the Joint Chiefs of Staff memorandum for the Secretary of Defense, "Effect of Approaching a Balanced Budget in FY 1954 and Achieving a Balanced Budget in FY 1955, March 19, 1953, CD 111 (1954) 1953, OSD Central Decimal Files 1953, RG330; Watson, JCS History, 6.
  36. Ibid.
  37. Memorandum of the discussion at the NSC meeting of March 18, 1953, March 19, 1953, "137th NSC Meeting," NSC Series, Whitman File.
  38. Memorandum of NSC discussion, March 25, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:258-64.
  39. Ibid.; Draft [for presentation to Congressional leaders], June 5, 1953.
  40. W.J. McNeill memorandum for Secretary Wilson and attached analyses of Army, Navy, and Air Force statements on Effect of NSC Study, n.d., CD 111 (1954) 1953, OSD Central Decimal File, 1953, RG 330.
  41. Discussion Outline, Meeting of NSC and Civilian Consultants, March 31, 1953, "President's Meeting with Civilian Consultants, March 31, 1953 (10)," NSC Series, Subject Subseries, WHO, OSANSA.
  42. Memorandum on the use of Civilian Consultants, March 2, 1953, "Consultants--NSC [February-March 1953] (1)," NSC series, administrative subseries, WHO, OSANSA; Memorandum on the subject of Consultants to the National Security Council, March 2, 1953, CCS 334 NSC (9-25-47) sec. 9, RG 218; Cutler notes for Briefing of NSC consultants, March 11, 1953, "Consultants--NSC [February-March 1953] (1)," NSC Series, Administration subseries, WHO, OSANSA.
  43. Outline, Third Draft, March 25, 1953, "Consultants--NSC [February-March 1953] (1)," NSC series, Administrative Subseries, WHO, OSANSA; "Defense Spending and the National Budget: Views of the Consultants to the National Security Council," March 31, 1953, attached to Hugh D. Farley to Cutler, April 2, 1953, "Documents Pertaining to the March 31, 1953 Meeting," NSC Series, Whitman File. In addition to these documents, the following summary of Anderson's presentation draws on memorandum of discussion at the special meeting of the NSC, March 31, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:264-81.
  44. Memorandum of discussion of the NSC meeting, March 31, 1953.
  45. For the procedure the administration adopted to implement this suggestion, see Bureau of the Budget Memorandum, "Financial Data for NSC Purposes," June 12, 1953, enclosed with James Lay memorandum for the NSC Planning Board, June 12, 1953, 334 NSC (9-25-47) sec. 10, RG 218; Cutler memorandum "Preparation and Use of Financial Data in Connection with NSC Procedures," July 7, 1953, attached to S. Everett Gleason memorandum for the NSC Planning Board, July 7, 1953, 334 NSC (9-25-47) sec. 11, ibid.; "Preparation and Use of Financial Data in Connection with National Security Council Procedures," July 23, 1953, attached to Note by the Secretaries to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, August 4, 1953, CCS 381 U.S. (1-31-50) Sec. 27, ibid.
  46. On March 11 and 23 the White House issued public statements announcing the names and purpose of the Panel of Civilian Consultants. White House Statement Concerning Steps Taken to Strengthen and Improve the Operations of the NSC, March 23, 1953, and editorial note PPP, 1953, 120-22.
  47. NSC 149, Note by the Executive Secretary to the National Security Council on Basis National Security Policies and Programs in Relation to Their Costs, April 3, 1953, Lot 61 D167, S/S-NSC files, RG 59; Draft #5, Condensed Statement of Proposed Polices and Programs, April 2, 1953, "Documents Pertaining to the March 31, 1953 Meeting, NSC Series, Whitman File. This was the document Lay circulated on April 3 as NSC 149. FR, 1952-54, 2:281-87.
  48. NSC 149, FR, 1952-54, 2:281-87.
  49. New obligational authority for the military would be kept to $36 billion.
  50. NSC 149.
  51. Memorandum of NSC, April 8, 1953, ibid., 287-90.
  52. Now NSC 149/1.
  53. Watson, JCS History, 7-9, 60-63; memorandum of NSC discussion, April 22, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:291-302.
  54. Memorandum of NSC discussion of the NSC meeting, April 22, 1953.
  55. Watson, JCS History, 60-63.
  56. Watson, JCS History, 3-9; memorandum of NSC discussion, April 22, 1953; memorandum of the NSC discussion, April 28, 1953, ibid., 3-2-05; report to the NSC by the Executive Secretary and enclosed NSC 149/2, Basic National Security Policies and Programs in Relation to their Costs, April 29, 1953, ibid., 305-316.
  57. Eisenhower remarks to Congressional leaders, April 30/53 revision - final, "Cutler, Robert," C.D. Jackson Records, Eisenhower Library (emphasis in original); Notes on Legislative Leadership meeting, April 30, 1953, "April 30, 1953 Meeting," Legislative Leaders series, Whitman File.
  58. Notes on Legislative Leaders meeting, April 30, 1953.
  59. Greenstein, Hidden-hand Presidency, 70-72.
  60. Notes on Legislative Leaders meeting, April 30, 1953.
  61. Watson, JCS History, 60-63, Tables 9-10, 85-86, and 205-09; Gary Reichard, The Reaffirmation of Republicanism: Eisenhower and the Eighty-Third Congress (Knoxville, 1975), 71-73; Iwan W. Morgan, Eisenhower Versus 'The Spenders': The Eisenhower Administration, the Democrats, and the Budget, 1953-1960 (New York, 1990), 49-53; John W. Sloan, Eisenhower and the Management of Prosperity (Lawrence, 1991), 69-75.

Chapter 7: A Chance for Peace?

  1. Eisenhower, Mandate for Change, 144.
  2. Handwritten notes of Cabinet meeting, March 6, 1953, "C-2 (2)," Cabinet series, WHO, Office of the Staff Secretary; entry for Tuesday, May 12, [1953], "Hughes Diary Notes 1953," Emmet J. Hughes Papers, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. At the end of Truman's term the Psychological Strategy Board had begun "preparatory work" in the "psychological field." Program of Psychological Preparation for Stalin's Passing from Power, November 1, 1952, FR, 1952-54, 8:1059-60.
  3. Allen Dulles, typewritten notes on Stalin's death, n.d., "Central Intelligence Agency 1954," Allen W. Dulles Papers, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ; The Charge in the Soviet Union (Beam) to the Department of State, March 4, 1952, FR, 1952-54, 8:1083-85; Department of State intelligence estimate, March 4, 1953, ibid., 1086-90. It should be noted that only at the end of February had Eisenhower nominated Bohlen for the post of ambassador to the Soviet Union, and the opposition of right-wing Republicans delayed his confirmation for a month. Although as charge Jacob Beam filled in admirably during this interval, U.S. intelligence doubtless would have profited from Bohlen's presence in Moscow.
  4. Immediately prior to the NSC meeting, Eisenhower had met with Allen Dulles, C.D. Jackson, and press secretary James Hagerty to prepare a statement to the Soviet people. For the result see statement by the president, March 4, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 8:1085.
  5. Memorandum of NSC discussion, March 4, 1953, FR, 1952-4, 2:1091-95.
  6. Evidently State's Office of Intelligence Research drafted its estimate immediately after learning of Stalin's illness. Although Dulles did not receive the estimate until March 5, he certainly would have been briefed on its conclusions prior to the NSC meeting. Department of State Intelligence Estimate, March 4, 1953, ibid., 1086-90.
  7. Memorandum of NSC discussion, March 4, 1953.
  8. Ibid.
  9. Walt Whitman Rostow, "Notes on the Origin of of the President's Speech of April 16, 1953, ibid., 1173-1183; idem., Europe After Stalin: Eisenhower's Three Decisions of March 11, 1953 (Austin, 1982), 35-60 (Rostow quotes Eisenhower's question to Jackson on p.41). The Princeton statement, which Rostow reproduces in an appendix to his book, supports his account. Ibid., 133-35.
  10. Rostow, "Notes on the Origin of the President's Speech;" Jackson to Dulles, March 10, 1953, "Time Inc. File--Stalin's Death: Speech Text and Comments--Full Evolution," Jackson Papers.
  11. "Draft for NSC: Proposed Plan for Psychological Warfare Offensive," March 1953, ibid.; Jackson to Dulles, March 10, 1953.
  12. Ultimately entitled The Dynamics of Soviet Society and published in 1953.
  13. Charles E. Wilson to the President, February 16, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 8:1075-77; Dulles to Eisenhower, February 27, 1953, ibid., 1075n2; entry for March 6, 1953, "Diary Notes 1953," Hughes Papers.
  14. "The March 6, 1953, Draft of the Proposed 'Message' and Related Documents," reproduced in Rostow, Europe after Stalin, appendix A, 84-90.
  15. Entry for March 9, 1953, "Diary Notes 1953," Hughes Papers.
  16. Smith memorandum to George A. Morgan, Acting Director, PSB, March 10, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 8:1111-13; Bohlen memorandum, March 7, 1953, ibid., 1100-1102. See also Bohlen memorandum, March 10, 1953, ibid., 1108-11.
  17. Smith memorandum to Morgan, March 10, 1953.
  18. Jackson to Dulles, March 10, 1953.
  19. Samuel Lubell, The Future of American Politics (Garden City, NY, 1952).
  20. Sam Lubell memo to Mr. Baruch, March 7, 1953, attached to Baruch to Eisenhower, March 7, 1953, "Eisenhower, D. D. 1953," Selected Correspondence 1946-65, 1953 D-H," Bernard Baruch Papers, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.
  21. In a follow-up memorandum, Lubell acknowledged that his proposal would require "a virtual review of our whole system of intelligence as regards Russia." Lubell memo to Baruch, March 14, 1953, attached to Baruch to Eisenhower, March 15, 1953, ibid.
  22. Lubell memo to Mr. Baruch, March 7; Eisenhower to Baruch, March 10, 1953, "Eisenhower Diary December 1952-July 1953 (2)," Eisenhower Diary series, Whitman File; Eisenhower memorandum to the Secretary of State, Dr. Gabriel Hauge, Mr. Emmet Hughes, Mr. C. D. Jackson, March 11, 1953, "White House Correspondence 1953 (5)," White House Memoranda Series, DP-Eisenhower.
  23. Memorandum of NSC discussion, March 11, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 8:1117-25. Unless otherwise noted, this memorandum is the source for our review of the NSC meeting.
  24. The Intelligence Advisory Committee was comprised of the intelligence organizations of the State Department, individual military services, and the JCS as well as the CIA.
  25. SE-39, "Probable Consequences of the Death of Stalin and of the elevation of the Elevation of Malenkov to Leadership of the USSR," March 10, 1953, CD 092 (Poland-SEASIA), RG 330, Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense." Actually drafted on March 6, the foreword emphasized that SE-39 was a provisional estimate.
  26. The most comprehensive (and sympathetic) examination of the 1952 note see Rolf Steininger, The German Question: The Stalin Note of 1952 and the Problem of Reunification )New York, 1990). On the note as an important precedent for Dulles, see John Van Oudenaren, Detente in Europe: The Soviet Union and the West since 1953 (Durham, 1991), 25-26.
  27. Eisenhower to Churchill, March 19, 1953, in Peter G. Boyle, ed., The Churchill-Eisenhower Correspondence, 1953-1955 (Chapel Hill, 1990), 32.
  28. Rostow "Notes on the Origin of the President's Speech," 1180.
  29. Ibid, 1181.
  30. For a comparison of the two drafts, see Rostow, Europe after Stalin, Appendix A, 84-93; Entry for March 13, 1953, "Diary Notes 1953," Hughes Papers.
  31. Malenkov quoted in Ambrose, Eisenhower: The President, 91. See also Jacob Beam to the Department of State, March 9 and 18, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 8:1105-06, 1131-32; ibid., 1130n.2; James G. Richter, "Perpetuating the Cold War: Domestic Sources of International Patterns of Behavior," Political Science Quarterly 107 (Summer 1992): 281-82.
  32. "Soviet Lures and Pressures since Stalin's Death, March 5 to 25, 1953," "Stalin's Death--Soviet Lures and Pressures Since," C. D. Jackson Records. For the argument that Malenkov was sincere, see Richter, "Perpetuating the Cold War." As we will see, Eisenhower was less willing to rule out this possibility than others.
  33. Nitze to Dulles, April 2, 1953, "The President's Speech April 1953 (1)," Draft Correspndence and Speech Series, DP-Eisenhower.
  34. Dulles memorandum of a conversation with the President, March 16, 1953, March 1-March 17, 1953," Chronological Series, DP-Eisenhower.
  35. Entry for March 16, 1953, "Diary Notes 1953," Hughes Papers; handwritten "Notes from a Political Diary, 1952 [sic]," ibid.; Hughes, Ordeal of Power, 103-05 (all emphases in the originals). Hughes notes in his personal diary that he rechecked all his quotes and is confident that "they are as faithful as anything but a tape-recording."
  36. Hughes, Ordeal of Power, 107; Entry for March 17, 1953, "Diary Notes 1953," Hughes Papers. Complaining afterward of Eisenhower's "kind of Boy Scout, PTA approach to the Russians," after this March 17 meeting Jackson retreated into the background. But he continued to plan his psychological warfare campaign. Ibid.; Abbott Washburn to C. D. Jackson, April 6, 1953, "Washburn, Abbott," C. D. Jackson Records.
  37. Entry for March 17, 1953, Hughes Diary.
  38. Dulles telephone conversation with Hughes, March 16, 1953, "March 1-March 17, 1953 [telephone calls]," Chronological Series, DP-Eisenhower; handwritten "Notes from a Political Diary, 1952 [sic];" entry for March 17, 1953, Hughes Diary.
  39. Dulles telephone conversation with Hughes, March 16, 1953; memorandum by the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs (Bonbright) to the Undersecretary of State, March 18, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 8:1133-34; "Considerations relating to the redraft of March 19, 1953 'Peace Plan Speech,'" and "Suggested Specific Changes in Redraft of March 19, 1953 'Peace Plan Speech,'" attached to Paul H. Nitze memorandum to Dulles, March 20, 1953, "The President's Speech April 1953 (3)," Draft Correspondence and Speech series, DP-Eisenhower; Nitze to Dulles, April 2, 1953, "The President' Speech April 1953 (1)," ibid.
  40. Entries for March 28 and April 3, 1953, "Diary Notes 1953," Hughes Papers.
  41. Nitze to Dulles, April 2, 1953, DP-Eisenhower.
  42. Churchill to Eisenhower, March 11, 1953, in Boyle, ed., The Churchill-Eisenhower Correspondence, 31; Steven Fish, "After Stalin's Death: The Anglo-American Debate Over a New Cold War," Diplomatic History 10 (Fall 1986): 333-55.
  43. Churchill to Eisenhower, April 5, 1953, in Boyle, The Churchill-Eisenhower Correspondence, 36-37; Eisenhower to Churchill, April 6, 1953, ibid., 37-38. Regardless of U.S. objections, as will be discussed, in May Churchill proposed a 4-power summit.
  44. Memorandum of NSC discussion [April 8, 1953], April 16, 1954, "NSC Meeting, April 8, 1953," NSC series, Whitman File; entries for April 6, 8, and 9, 1953, "Diary Notes 1953," Hughes Papers.
  45. Eisenhower to Churchill, April 6, 1953, in Peter G. Boyle, ed., The Churchill-Eisenhower Correspondence, 37-38; entries for April 6 and 8, 1953, "Diary Notes 1953," Hughes Papers.
  46. Entries for April 6, 7, 9, and 10, 1953, ibid.; Hughes memorandum for the President, April 8, 1953, "Eisenhower, Dwight 1953," Hughes Papers.
  47. Dulles memorandum for Hughes, April 10, 1953, "April 1-April 30, 1953 (3)," Chronological Series, DP-Eisenhower.
  48. Entry for April 11, 1953, "Diary Notes 1953," Hughes Papers; Churchill to Eisenhower, April 11, 1953, Boyle, Churchill-Eisenhower Correspondence, 41-2. Churchill suggested some revisions in a follow-up telegram the next day. It would be a "pity," he wrote in the cover letter, "if a sudden frost nipped spring in the bud." Churchill to Eisenhower, April 12, 1953, ibid., 43-45.
  49. Entry for April 11, 1953, "Diary Notes 1953," Hughes Papers.
  50. Entries for April 11 and 12, 1953, ibid.
  51. Ibid; Eisenhower to Churchill, April 11, 1953, in Boyle, The Churchill-Eisenhower Correspondence, 43.
  52. Entries for April 12-16, "Diary Notes 1953," Hughes Papers; Hughes, Ordeal of Power, 112. In fact Eisenhower did drop occasional phrases near the end of his speech, but hardly anyone noticed.
  53. Minnich Notes on Foreign Policy Speech, "Miscellaneous -- F, January 1953-July 1958," L. Arthur Minnich Series, White House Office, Office of the Staff Secretary.
  54. Eisenhower, "The Chance for Peace," April 16, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 8:1147-55. The following discussion of the speech derives from this source.
  55. "Foreign Policy Speech," June 4, 1953, "Miscellaneous--F, January 1953-July 1958," L. Arthur Minich Series," White House Office, Office of the Staff Secretary; Central Inteligence Agency, "Foreign Radio Reactions to President Eisenhower's 16 April Speech Before the American Society of Newspaper Editors," April 16-17, 1953, "CIA Foreign Broadcast Information, January-April 1953," NSC Series--Briefing Notes, WHO, OSANSA; idem., "Foreign Radio Reaction to President' Eisenhower's Speech of 16 April Before the American Society of Newspaper Editors," n.d., ibid.
  56. The initial outline for and successive drafts of the speech indicate a progressively more belligerent, even hostile tone. See the material in "Speech: April 18, 1953," Speech, Statements, etc. series, DP-Princeton.
  57. Dulles, "The Eisenhower Foreign Policy: A World-Wide Peace Offensive," April 18, 1953," reproduced in Rostow, Europe After Stalin, Appendix E, 122-131.
  58. No direct evidence is available of Dulles's consultation with Eisenhower on the speech. The secretary's rule was never to make a public address without the president's approval, however, and he certainly would not have made an exception in a case of this magnitude.
  59. Sam Lubell, "Russian Reply to Eisenhower, April 29, 1953, "Lubell, Samuel 1953," Selected Correspondence 1946-65, 1953 I-M, Baruch papers; Memo to Mr. Baruch from Samuel Lubell, July 3, 1953, ibid; Kennan to Allen Dulles, April 25, 1953, "Kennan, George," Records of C. D. Jackson.
  60. Bohlen to Department of State, April 25, 1953 (two different telegrams), FR, 1952-54, 8:1162-66.
  61. Ibid.; SE-44, "Soviet Statement of 25 April 1953 in Reply to President Eisenhower's Speech on 16 April 1953," 30 April 1953, ibid., 1168-69.
  62. Gaddis, Strategies of Containment, 163.
  63. Eisenhower to Churchill, April 25, 1953, in Boyle, ed., Churchill-Eisenhower Correspondence, 47.
  64. "If you could only trust that bastard Malenkov," Eisenhower commented a day after his speech. Entry for April 17, 1953, "Hughes Diary Notes," Hughes papers.
  65. Jackson to Dulles, April 16, 1953, "Jackson, C. D.," Selected Correspondence and Related Material, DP--Princeton; Memorandum for the Chairman, Psychological Strategy Board, April 28, 1953, "OCB--Misc. Memos (3), Records of C. D. Jackson; William A. Korn memorandum, "Some Thoughts on President's Speech of April 16," May 1, 1953, "Russia--Stalin's Death and Reaction and Results of President's Speech of April 16, 1953 (5)," Subject Series, White House Central (Confidential) File, Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas; Memorandum for the Chairman, Psychological Strategy Board, June 8, 1953, ibid.; Dulles Circular, August 1, 1953, "Russia--Stalin's Death and Reaction and Results of President's Speech of April 16, 1953 (1)," ibid.
  66. Vladislav M. Zubok, "Soviet Intelligence and the Cold War: The 'Small' Committee of Information, 1952-53," Diplomatic History 19 (Summer 1995): 457-61; Vladislav M. Zubok and Constantine Pleshakov, Inside the Kremlin's Cold War: From Stalin to Khrushchev (Cambridge, MA, 1996), 156-57; James G. Richter, "Reexamining Soviet Policy Towards Germany during the Beria Interregnum," Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars' Cold War International History Project Working Paper 3 (June 1992): 23-26; idem, Khrushchev's Double Bind: International Pressures and Domestic Coalition Politics (Baltimore, 1994), 30-52.
  67. Memorandum of NSC discussion, April 8, 1953, April 9, 1953, "139th meeting of the NSC," NSC Series, Whitman file; memorandum of NSC discussion, April 28, 1953, April 29, 1953, "141st meeting of the NSC," ibid.

Chapter 8: The Solarium Exercise

  1. Eisenhower quoted in memorandum of conversation, [probably by Cutler], "Solarium Project," May 8, 1953, lot 66D148, SS-NSC files, RG 59.
  2. Record of Meeting of the NSC Planning Board, May 1, 1953, CCS 334 NSC (9-25-47) Sec. 10, RG 218; Bowie memorandum to Dulles, June 8, 1953, Lot 61 D167, S/P files, RG 59; memorandum of discussion of the NSC meeting, June 9, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:373-77; NSC 153/1, June 10, 1953, ibid., 379-86.
  3. The President's Appointments, May 8, 1953; Dulles's Appointment Calendar, May 8, 1953. The hitherto sole primary source for this gathering, Cutler's memoir, portrays Dulles as the catalyst for this meeting and further discusses one the previous Sunday afternoon at which Dulles rehearsed his presentation. Dulles did meet with Cutler, Allen Dulles, C.D. Jackson, and Walter Bedell Smith earlier "to discuss reaction to Pres' speech," but it was on Saturday, May 2. Indeed, as the following account derived from previously classified documents highlights, Cutler's recollection is not altogether reliable. Cutler, No Time For Rest, 307-09; Dulles's Appointment Calendar, May 2, 1953.
  4. Memorandum of conversation, [probably by Cutler], "Solarium Project," May 8, 1953. The following discussion of this conversation derives from this memorandum.
  5. Cutler's asserts in his memoir that the prior Sunday Beetle Smith suggested an exercise in which "teams" advocated different alternative strategies. Cutler, No Time For Rest, 308. The May 8 memorandum makes clear the idea came from Eisenhower.
  6. Memorandum of NSC meeting, May 13, 1953, May 14, 1953, "144th NSC Meeting," NSC series, Whitman File; NSC Tentative Agenda for Future Meetings, May 27, 1953, 334NSC (9-25-47) Sec.10, RG 218.
  7. Cutler Memorandum for the Record, "Solarium Project," May 9, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:323-26; Cutler memorandum for the Record, May 15, 1953, ibid., 327-8; Cutler memorandum for General Smith, May 15, 1953, lot 66D148, SS-NSC files, RG 59.
  8. Memorandum of NSC discussion, May 13, 1953.
  9. Cutler memorandum for the Record, May 9, 1953; Summaries Prepared by the NSC Staff of Project Solarium Presentations and Written Reports, n.d., FR, 1952-54, 2:399-400, 412.
  10. Summaries Prepared by the NSC Staff of Project Solarium Presentations and Written Reports, 416; "A Report to the National Security Council by Task Force "C" of Project Solarium," July 16, 1953, "Project Solarum--Report by Task Force "C" (1-10)," NSC Series, Subject Subseries, WHO, OSANSA.
  11. Robert Amory, Jr. memorandum for Walter B. Smith, Allen W. Dulles, and Robert Cutler, "Project 'Solarium,'" July 8, 1953, lot 66D148, SS-NSC files, RG 59.
  12. Alternative D's premise and mission can be inferred from Amory's attaching it to the memorandum in which he refers to it. SE-46, "Probable Long Term Development of the Soviet Bloc and Western Power Positions," approved 3 July, published 8 July 1953, attached to Amory, Jr. memorandum for Smith, Dulles, and Cutler, July 8, 1953, ibid.
  13. Personnel Recommendations for Task Forces, May 18, 1953, ibid.
  14. Cutler memorandum for the Acting Secretary of State, "Solarium Project," May 11, 1953, ibid; Cutler memorandum for the record and attached paper, May 9, 1953, FR, 1952-54 2:325-26; Personnel Recommendations for Task Forces, May 18, 1953; minutes of the NSC meeting, July 16, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:395-96.
  15. "Project Solarium: A Collective Oral History with General Andrew J. Goodpaster, Robert R. Bowie, and Ambassador George F. Kennan," February 27, 1988, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ; Andrew J. Goodpaster, "Organizing the White House," in Kenneth W. Thompson, ed., The Eisenhower Presidency: Eleven Intimate Perspectives of Dwight D. Eisenhower (Lanham, MD, 1984), 71. Eisenhower came to respect Goodpaster immensely at SHAPE. Shortly thereafter Goodpaster was promoted to Brigadier General and Eisenhower appointed him his staff secretary after the death of General Paul Carroll.
  16. Dulles telephone conversation with Gen. Cutler, June 1, 1953, "June 1953 [Telephone Calls]," Chronological Series, DP-Eisenhower.
  17. Cutler memorandum for the record, "Solarium Project," May 9, 1953; Personnel Recommendations for Task Forces, May 18, 1953; Dulles telephone conversation with Gen. Cutler, June 1, 1953,; Kennan to Cutler, May 25, 1953, "Kennan, George," Subject series, DP-Princeton; Cutler to Kennan, May 26, 1953, ibid.
  18. For Eisenhower's respect for Kennan, see in particular Eisenhower to Walter Hampton Mallory, March 4, 1950, DDEP, 11:721. While on leave from the presidency of Columbia Eisenhower suggested that Kennan direct the Institute for War and Peace Studies. Eisenhower to John Allen Krout, April 30, 1951, ibid, 12:252.
  19. Paper Prepared by the Directing Panel, "Project Solarium," June 1, 1953, FR, 1952-52, 2:360-64.
  20. At this session Task Force C conceded it had fallen behind "in getting things on paper." Notes taken at the First Plenary Session of Project Solarium, June 26, 1953, ibid., 388-93.
  21. For a list of the attendees, see Minutes of the NSC meeting, July 16, 1953, 394-96.
  22. We refer to the original reports, not the summaries published in FR, 1952-54, 2:399-434. These summaries, however, contain quotes from the discussion at the NSC meeting.
  23. See the preface to "A Report to the National Security Council by Task Force "A" of Project Solarium," July 16, 1953, "Project Solarium--Report by Task Force "A" (3-7)," NSC Series, Subject Subseries, WHO, OSANSA. Unless otherwise noted, the following analysis of the task force arguments and recommendations derives from the respective reports. The authors had some success in declassifying portions of the reports which were initially exempted from declassification. For convenience, page references from the reports appear in the text.
  24. Project Solarium Collective Oral History; summaries prepared by NSC staff of Project Solarium presentations and written reports, n.d., FR, 1952-54, 2:400. The Doolittle Panel's terms of references obscured distinctions between NSC 20/4 and subsequent basic policy statements.
  25. "Project Solarium--A Report to the National Security Council by Task Force "B" of Project Solarium," July 16, 1953, "Project Solarium, Report by Task Force "B" (1-5)," NSC Series, Subject Subseries, WHO, OSANSA.
  26. Report to the National Security Council by Task Force "C" of Project Solarium.
  27. Although no memorandum of this meeting's discussion can be found at either the Eisenhower Library or the National Archives, a week later NSC executive secretary James Lay enclosed a summary of the discussion along with summaries of the task forces' presentations and reports prepared by the NSC staff. James S. Lay, Jr., Memorandum for the National Security Council, July 22, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:399. See also notes 21 and 22.
  28. Dulles handwritten notes [on Solarium], n.d.,"General Foreign Policy Matters," Box 8, WH Memoranda Series, DP--Eisenhower; Robert Bowie handwritten notes from NSC meeting where task force reports were first presented, July 1953, lot 64D S63, S/P files, RG 59.
  29. Summaries prepared by the NSC Staff, 432-34.
  30. Kennan quoted in Goodpaster, "Organizing the White House," 65. See also George F. Kennan, Memoirs: 1950-1963 (NY, 1972), 186.
  31. Memorandum by Cutler, July 16, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:397.
  32. Eisenhower diary, n.d., "Diary December 1952-July 1953 (1), Diary series, Whitman File.
  33. "Decisions" [Project Solarium], FR, 1952-54, 2:396; Cutler memorandum, July 16, 1953, ibid., 398.

Chapter 9: Drafting NSC 162/2

  1. Eisenhower address in San Francisco, October 8, 1952, "September 26, 1952," speech series, Whitman file.
  2. Summaries of Project Solarium prepared by the NSC Staff, enclosed with Lay memorandum to the NSC, July 22, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:399-434.
  3. [Cutler], "Summary of Basic Concepts of Task Forces," July 30, 1953, "Project Solarium (1)," NSC series, Subject Subseries, WHO, OSANSA.
  4. Memorandum of NSC discussion, July 30, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:435-40.
  5. NSC Record of Action, July 30, 1953, ibid., 440.
  6. Cutler memorandum, "Points for Consideration in Drafting New Policy," July 31, 1953, "Cutler memos--1953 (4)," Executive Secretary's Subject File series, White House Office, National Security Staff: Papers, 1948-61, Eisenhower Library (hereafter, WHO, NSS).
  7. Dulles memorandum to Bowie, August 1, 1953, Lot 64 D63, S/P files, RG 59. In possession of the authors, this document was released to Mr. Bowie.
  8. Memorandum of NSC meeting discussion, October 13, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:535.
  9. Representing Task Forces A, B, and C were Colonel C. H. Bonesteel, General McCormack, and General Lemnitzer, respectively. Cutler memorandum for special committee of the Planning Board, July 31, 1953, "Cutler memos--1953 (4)," WHO, NSS.
  10. NSC 140/1, May 18, 1953, and enclosures, FR, 1952-54, 2:328-349; Lay memorandum to the NSC, June 1, 1953, and enclosures, ibid., 355-59; and memorandum of discussion at the NSC Meeting, June 4, 1953, ibid., 367-70.
  11. NSC 159 series, ibid., 465-66n.2.
  12. Ibid., 305-16.
  13. Ibid., 1796-1874.
  14. NIE 90, "Soviet Bloc Capabilities Through Mid-1955," August 18, 1953, Records of the Central Intelligence Agency, RG 263, National Archives; NIE 95, "Probable Soviet Courses of Action Through Mid-1955, September 25, 1953, ibid.
  15. "Building Strength in Western Europe," September 18, 1953, NSC 162, Section 4, Records of the Planning Board, 1947-1961, RG 273, National Archives; "Building Strength in Regional Groupings in the Far East," September 18, 1953, ibid.
  16. These materials will be discussed as relevant in subsequent chapters.
  17. Cutler memorandum to Dulles, September 3, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:455-57.
  18. Draft statement of basic national security policy prepared by the special committee of the NSC Planning Board, NSC 162, Section 3, Records of the Planning Board, 1947-1961, RG 273.
  19. Cutler, "Overall Comment on Policy Paper, Sept. 18/53, of Solarium Special Committee," September 20, 1953, "Cutler's Memos--1953 (5)," WHO, NSS. Until otherwise indicated, the following paragraphs derive from this source. All emphases are in the original text.
  20. Cutler report of recommendations relative to the National Security Council, March 16, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:254.
  21. Memorandum of NSC discussion, October 13, 1953, ibid., 535.
  22. NSC 162, Draft Statement of Policy by the NSC Planning Board, September 30, 1953, ibid, 489-91. As printed in the Foreign Relations series, the typewritten notes appended to NSC 162 reproduce the text of Robert Bowie's briefing memorandum to Dulles. Until indicated otherwise, the following discussion derives from this source, supplemented by Bowie's recollections.
  23. Editorial note, ibid., 463-64. The Solarium reports had been sent to the main State Department bureaus on August 12 with a brief explanation of the project and request for cooperation as needed. Memorandum by the Executive Secretary of the Policy Planning Staff (Philip H. Watts), August 12, 1953, ibid., 441-42.
  24. Memorandum of discussion at the NSC meeting, October 7, 1953, ibid., 514-34.
  25. NSC 162/1, Lot 61 D167, S/S-NSC files, RG 59; memorandum of discussion at the NSC meeting, October 29, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:565-76; NSC 162/2, 577-97.
  26. Bowie memorandum to Dulles, October 28, 1953, ibid., 565-67.

Chapter 10: The Sino-Soviet Threat

  1. Eisenhower quoted in Robert H. Ferrell, ed., The Diary of James C. Hagerty: Eisenhower in Mid-Course, 1954-1955, (Bloomington, IN, 1983), entry for December 13, 1954, ibid., 134.
  2. Intelligence reports included SE-36 (March 5, 1953), FR, 1952-54, 8:1096-98; SE-39 (March 12, 1953), ibid., 1125-29; SE-42 (April 24, 1953, ibid., 1160-62; SE-44 (April 30, 1953), ibid., 1168-69; NIE-65 (June 16, 1953, ibid., 1188-92; SE-46 (July 8, 1953), ibid., 1196-1205; NIE-99 (October 23, 1953), FR, 1952-54, 2:551-62. On Solarium, see chapter eight. For the final Jackson Report, dated June 30, 1953, see FR, 1952-54, 2:1794-1874. The relevant Planning Board and Staff study drafts included, among others, NSC 148 (Far East, March 6, 1953), FR, 1952-54, 12:285-93; 294-98; NSC 166 (Communist China, October 19, 1953), FR, 1952-54, 14:278-82; 282-306; NSC 174 (Soviet satellites, December 11, 1953), FR, 1952-54, 8:110-16; 116-25; Bohlen memoranda and cables, March 7, 1953, ibid., 1100-02; March 10, 1953, ibid., 1108-11; April 24, 1953, ibid., 1156-59; April 25, 1953, ibid., 1162-66; July 7, 1953, ibid., 1193-96; July 9, 1953, ibid., 1205-06; July 10, 1953, ibid., 1207; August 10, 1953, ibid., 1210-12; September 23, 1953, ibid., 96-100; December 5, 1953, ibid., 1218-20.
  3. David J. Dallin, Soviet Foreign Policy After Stalin (Philadelphia, 1961), 125.
  4. Philip E. Mosely, "The Kremlin's Foreign Policy Since Stalin," Foreign Affairs 32 (October 1953): 20-33.
  5. Mosely, "Kremlin's Foreign Policy," 22-23; Dallin, Soviet Foreign Policy, 132-34. Most scholars now believe that Stalin's death had a greater influence on the Communists. See Rosemary Foot, A Substitute for Victory: The Politics of Peacemaking at the Korean Armistice Talks (Ithaca, 1990); and William Stueck, The Korean War: An International History (Princeton, 1995).
  6. Bohlen remarks of September 23, 1953, Summary minutes of the Chiefs of Mission Meeting at Vienna, September 22-24, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 8:96-100.
  7. Dallin, Soviet Foreign Policy, 171-79; James Richter, "Reexamining Soviet Policy Toward Germany during the Beria Interregnum," analyzes the Soviet May/June decision regarding East Germany in the light of memoirs of key figures and relevant archives recently released in the U.S.S.R. and the former Democratic Republic of Germany.
  8. NIE-99, "Estimate of the World Situation Through 1955, October 23, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:551-62.
  9. Bohlen remarks, summary minutes of the Chiefs of Mission Meeting at Vienna, September 23, 1953, 96-100; Bohlen to secretary of State, April 24, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 8:1156-59; Bohlen to Department of State, July 7, 1953, ibid., 1193-96. See also Bohlen to Department of State, December 5, 1953, ibid., 1218-20; Bohlen to Department of State, January 20, 1954, ibid., 1223-25.
  10. Vladislav M. Zubok, "Soviet Intelligence and the Cold War: The 'Small' Committee of Information, 1952-53," Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars' Cold War International History Project Working Paper 3 (December 1992): 17. On pp. 9-10 Zubok stresses the Soviet leaders' fear of war as the "decisive reason" for the "peace offensive." He places equal stress on political infighting in his revised "Soviet Intelligence and the Cold War: The 'Small' Committee of Information, 1952-53," Diplomatic History 19 (Summer 1995): 453-72.
  11. NSC 162, 579.
  12. Ibid.
  13. Ibid., 580.
  14. Staff Study by the Planning Board of the NSC, attached to NSC 174, Statement of Policy Proposed by the NSC on United States Policy toward the Soviet Satellites in Eastern Europe," December 11, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 8:116-20; David J. Dallin, Soviet Foreign Policy After Stalin, 166-97.
  15. NSC 162/2, 580.
  16. Staff Study on Basic U.S. Objective Toward Communist China, annex to NSC 148, "Statement of Policy Proposed by the NSC on United States Policies in the Far East," April 6, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 12:294.
  17. NSC 148, "Statement of Policy Proposed by the National Security Council on United States Policy in the Far East," enclosed with Lay Note to the NSC, April 6, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 12:285-93; memorandum of NSC discussion, April 8, 1953, ibid., 298-300.
  18. NSC 166/1, Statement of U.S. Policy Towards Communist China, November 6, 1953, and enclosed NSC Staff Study, FR, 1952-54, 14:282-305.
  19. NSC 162/2, 580; NSC 166/1, 279. See also enclosed Staff Study, 283-91.
  20. NSC 166/1, 279.
  21. Ibid., 280; memorandum of NSC discussion, November 5, 1953, 265-66.
  22. NIE-65, "Soviet Bloc Capabilities Through 1957," June 16, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 8:1189; NIE-99, 553.
  23. NSC 162/2, 579.
  24. Meeting with Truman, January 31, 1951, FR, 1951, 8:449-58. See also chapter 1 (on Eisenhower), pp.???
  25. NIE 99, 551, 554. See also the Jackson Committee Report, ibid., 1800.
  26. NSC 162/2, 580-81.
  27. Ibid., 579, 581.
  28. Jackson Committee Report, ibid., 1800.
  29. NSC 162/2, 581.
  30. Memorandum of NSC meeting, December 21, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 2:841.
  31. NIE-64, quoted in the Jackson Committee Report, ibid., 1800.
  32. Ibid., 1801-05; NIE-65, 1191.
  33. NSC 162/2, 581; Jackson Committee Report, 1805-06; 1809-11.
  34. "Some Major Questions," FR, 1952-54, 2:231.
  35. See Jackson Committee Report, 1806-09.
  36. NSC 162/2, 581.
  37. Bohlen remarks, summary minutes of the Chiefs of Mission Meeting at Vienna, September 23, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 8:101.
  38. Memorandum prepared in the Department of State, October 1, 1953, ibid., 85.
  39. See NSC 162/2, 581, 594-95; NSC 174, "Statement of Proposed Policy Toward the Soviet Satellites in Eastern Europe," December 11, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 8:111-12; staff study attached to NSC 174, ibid., 116-21, 124-27; Gaddis, The Long Peace, 188-94.
  40. NSC Staff Study enclosed with NSC 166/1, 296-97; 280. See also Background Paper prepared in Department of State for the U.S. Delegation to the Geneva Conference, "The Sino-Soviet Relation and its Potential Sources of Differences," April 6, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 14:401-07.

Chapter 11: Strategic Objectives: Roll-back?

  1. Cutler memorandum to Dulles, September 6, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:457.
  2. See chapter 4.
  3. Cutler memorandum, July 31, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:441.
  4. Marc Trachtenberg, "A 'Wasting Asset': American Strategy and the Shifting Nuclear Balance, 1949-1954," in idem., History and Strategy (Princeton, 1991), 140-42; David Alan Rosenberg, "The Origins of Overkill," International Security (Spring 1983): 30-34.
  5. NSC 162/2, FR, 1952-54, 2:594-95. While the phrasing differed from earlier drafts, the substance was the same.
  6. Ibid., 595.
  7. NSC 162/2, 580-81. See also the discussion of Soviet vulnerability and relevant citations in chapter 10.
  8. NSC 162, 512.
  9. Paragraph 43 of NSC 162, 513.
  10. Ibid., 513.
  11. Ibid., 492. See also NSC 162/2, ibid., 580.
  12. NSC 162, 493. See also NSC 162/2, 580-81.
  13. NSC 162, 499, 495. See also NSC 162/2, 586, 583.
  14. NSC 162, 496-7; See also NSC 162/2, 584-5.
  15. Robert Amory, CIA Advisor on the Planning Board, Memorandum to Director, Central Intelligence on paragraph 43 of NSC 162, October 1, 1953, Lot 54D563, S/P files, RG 59.
  16. The positions taken in the Planning Board by the JCS advisor are reflected in the JCS memorandum for the Secretary of Defense, "Review of Basic National Security Policy (NSC 162)" and Appendix, October 6, 1953, Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense, RG 330, from which the following quotations are taken.
  17. JCS memorandum to Secretary of Defense, October 6, 1953, 2-3.
  18. Appendix to JSC memorandum to Secretary of Defense, 2-3.
  19. Appendix to JCS memorandum to secretary of defense, 9; Paragraph 41 of NSC 162, 512.
  20. Appendix to JCS memorandum to secretary of defense, 10.
  21. NSC 162, 514. JCS proposed italics.
  22. Memorandum of NSC meeting, October 7, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:529.
  23. See FR, 1952-54, 2:512n17.
  24. Memorandum of NSC meeting, October 7, 1953, 529.
  25. Ibid., 529-30.
  26. Ibid., 530.
  27. Ibid., 534.
  28. See memorandum for Bowie to Dulles, October 28, 1953, on the revisions. Ibid., 565-67.
  29. Memorandum of NSC meeting, October 29, 1953, ibid., 568-69.
  30. NSC 162/2, 595.
  31. Eisenhower memorandum to Dulles, September 8, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:560-63 (emphasis in the original).
  32. Memorandum of NSC discussion, June 24, 1954, ibid., 696.
  33. In addition to Chapter 8, see Rosenberg, "Origins of Overkill," 33; Glenn H. Snyder, "The 'New Look' of 1953," in Warner R. Schilling, Paul Y. Hammond, and Glenn H. Snyder, Strategy, Politics, and Defense Budgets (New York, 1962), 407-08.
  34. Memorandum of NSC discussion, March 25, 1954, ibid., 642.
  35. Memorandum by the Special Assistant for National Security Affairs, June 16, 1953, ibid., 397; memorandum of NSC discussion, March 25, 1954, 642.
  36. Memorandum of NSC discussion, December 3, 1954, ibid., 804. See also entry for June 19, 1954, in Ferrell, ed., Hagerty Diary, 69.
  37. Memorandum of NSC discussion, March 4, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 2:636.
  38. Memorandum of NSC discussion, March 25, 1954, ibid., 641.
  39. Memorandum of NSC discussion, December 3, 1954, ibid., 806. (emphasis in original)
  40. NSC 148, "Statement of Policy Proposed by the National Security Council on United States Policy in the Far East," enclosed with Lay Note to the NSC, April 6, 1953, and annex, Staff Study on Basic U.S. Objective Toward Communist China, April 6, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 12:285-98.
  41. Memorandum of NSC meeting, April 8, 1953, ibid., 298-300.
  42. Memorandum of conversation by Nitze, April 9, 1953, ibid., 300-02.
  43. NSC 166/1, U.S. Policy Towards Communist China and enclosed NSC Staff Study, November 6, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 14:278-306; NSC 146/2, United States Objectives and Courses of Action with Respect to Formosa and the Chinese National Government, and enclosed NSC Staff study, November 6, 1953, ibid., 307-30.
  44. JCS memorandum to the Secretary of Defense, November 3, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 14:260; memorandum of NSC discussion, November 5, 1953, ibid., 270; NSC 162/2, FR, 1952-54, 2:580.
  45. NSC 166/1, 280-82; NSC 162/2, FR, 1952-54, 2:580.
  46. NSC 166/1, 296-97; NSC 162/2, 580.
  47. NSC 166/1, FR, 1952-54, 14:281-82; NSC Staff Study on U.S. Policy Toward China, ibid., 304-06; editorial note 131, ibid., 239-40; memorandum of NSC meeting, November 5, 1953, ibid., 268, 273. See also memorandum of NSC meeeting, April 13, 1954, ibid., 409-12.
  48. "Project Control: the Concept of Control by Air and Other Means," Air War College, Air University, Maxwell Air force Base, Alabama (cited hereafter as "Project Control"), is in the archives of the Air University. The background and substance are well described by Tami Davis Biddle, "Handling the Soviet Threat: 'Project Control' and the Debate on American Strategy in the Early Cold War Years," The Journal of Strategic Studies 12 (September 1989):273-302. We are indebted to Professor Biddle for making available to us the documents cited below regarding Project Control.
  49. Briefing of Weapons Systems Evaluation Group (WSEG), 24 August 1954, Project Control.
  50. In order to justify the first strike, the Report argues for redefining aggression to include evident preparation of the capacity for atomic attack by an adversary whose doctrine includes ultimate military aggression.
  51. "Strategic Atomic Offensive," Research Memorandum No. 4.10 (June 1954), p.18, Project Control.
  52. This brief sketch of Project Control is based on the Final Report, June 1954, except as noted.
  53. Quotations are from memoranda for the record of the various briefings made by Colonel Sleeper, Colonel S. B. Hardwick, Jr., and Colonel G. V. Davis, all in Project Control.
  54. Rosenberg, "The Origins of Overkill," 34; Trachtenberg, "Wasting Asset," 141.
  55. NSC 5501, Basic National Security Policy, enclosed with James S. Lay, Jr. note to the National Security Council, January 7, 1955, FR, 1955-57, 19: 24-38 (see in particular paragraph 35, p.33).
  56. NSC 5422, Study Prepared by the National Security Council Planning Board, "Tentative Guidelines Under NSC 162/2 for FY 1956," June 14, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 2:649, 655, 659.
  57. Study Prepared by the Department of Defense, "Estimate of the Miltary Posture Throughout the Free World, FY 1956 Through FY 1959, n.d., FR, 1952-54, 2:675; Watson, JCS History, 42-44; NSC 162/2, 595. (authors' emphasis)
  58. Memorandum by the JCS to Wilson, June 23, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 2:680-86.
  59. Ibid., 681.
  60. Ibid., 684.
  61. Ibid., 685.
  62. Memorandum of NSC meeting, June 24, 1954, ibid., 694-95.
  63. Ibid., 697.
  64. Editorial Note, ibid., 698.
  65. Watson, JCS History, 46.
  66. Ibid., 47.
  67. Memorandum of NSC meeting, August 5, 1954, ibid., 711; Watson, JCS History, 47.
  68. Paper prepared in the Department of State, November 15, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 2:772-76.
  69. Memorandum by the Secretary of Defense to the Executive Secretary of the National Security Council, November 22, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 2:785-87. (emphasis in original)
  70. Memorandum of NSC meeting, November 24, 1954, ibid., 788-90.
  71. Ibid., 790.
  72. Ibid., 791-92. (emphasis in the original)
  73. Ibid., 792.
  74. Ibid., 794-96.
  75. Ibid., 799-800.
  76. NSC 5440, Draft Basic National Security Policy, December 14, 1954, ibid., 808-12.
  77. Ibid, 813-14.
  78. Ibid., 814.
  79. Ibid., 812-16.
  80. Ibid., 818-19.
  81. JCS memorandum to Wilson, December 17, 1954, ibid., 828.
  82. Ibid., 829-30. No such special group was ever established.
  83. Memorandum of NSC meeting, December 21, 1953, ibid., 832-36.
  84. Ibid., 836-38.
  85. Ibid., 839-40.
  86. Ibid., 840.
  87. Ibid., 840-41.
  88. NSC 5501, Basic National Security Policy, January 7, 1955, enclosed with Lay note to the NSC, FR, 1955-57, 19:24-38. See also Bowie memorandum to Dulles, January 4, 1955, ibid., 6-9; memorandum of NSC meeting, January 5, 1955, ibid., 9-24.

Chapter 12: Military Strategy

  1. Eisenhower, Mandate for Change, 449.
  2. Gaddis, Strategies of Containment, 35.
  3. Nuclear Notebook (December 1993): 57.
  4. Memorandum of NSC meeting, March 25, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 2:641-2; memorandum of NSC meeting, December 3, 1954, ibid., 804-06.
  5. Entry for March 17, 1954, in Ferrell, ed., Hagerty Diary, 31.
  6. Memorandum of NSC discussion, November 19, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:601. Compared to America's 832, in 1952 the Soviet Union possessed only 50 warheads. And although it successfully tested a hydrogen bomb in 1953, its stockpile still totaled only 120. Nuclear Notebook (December 1993): 57.
  7. Memorandum of NSC discussion, June 4, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:367-70.
  8. Frank Nash memorandum for the Secretary of Defense, May 5, 1953, CD 091.7 (Europe) 1953, OSD Central Decimal File, RG 330; Wilson memorandum to the President, June 2, 1953, ibid.
  9. Omar Bradley memorandum for the Secretary of Defense, July 30, 1953, CD 092 (Germany), OSD Central Decimal Files, 1953, RG 330; memorandum of State-MSA-JCS Meeting, January 28, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 5:711-15. See also A.C. Davis, Deputy U.S. Representative to the Standing Group [North Atlantic Military Committee], memorandum for the JCS, January 14, 1953, CD 091.7 (Europe) 1953, OSD Central Decimal File, RG 330; W. G. Lalor memorandum for the U.S. Representative to the Standing Group, n.d., ibid. A subsequent memorandum indicated the State Department's estimate was as stark as Bradley's. "It should be emphasized that the survival of the Governments (if not the peoples) of our allies depends upon the success of the forward strategy," wrote Dulles's deputy assistantt secretary for European affairs. "Should the other deterrents fail or disappear, and the NATO force prove inadequate as a barrier to the aggressor, they do not survive." Bonbright to Dulles, September 24, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 5:443.
  10. Memorandum of discussion at the NSC Meeting of February 18, 1953, February 19, 1953, "132nd Meeting of the NSC," NSC Series, Whitman File.
  11. Eisenhower to William H. Draper, March 16, 1953, quoted in Watson, JCS History, 284-85.
  12. James Bonbright memorandum to Dulles, September 24, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 5:440-43.
  13. J.C.S. 2124/98, Note by the Secretaries to the JCS on Proposed Talks with the Soviets, September 12, 1953, 092 Germany (5-4-49) Sec. 17, Chairman's Files (Radford, 1953-57), RG 218; J.C.S. 2121/108, Appendix B to Report by the Joint Strategic Survey Committee (in collaboration with the Joint Strategic Plans Committee) to the JCS on Proposed European Security System, September 24, 1953, 092 Germany (5-4-49) Sec. 19, ibid.; Radford memorandum for the Secretary of Defense, Sept. 30, 1953, CD 350.05 (Europe) 1953, OSD Central Decimal File, 1953, RG 330.
  14. Merchant to Dulles, July 7, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 5:430-31.
  15. On the Korean War's effect on Truman's commitment to Taiwan, see, among many works, Nancy Bernkopf Tucker, Patterns in the Dust: Chinese-American Relations and the Recognition Controversy (NY, 1983).
  16. Memorandum of the substance of a discussion at a State-JCS meeting, March 27, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 14:165.
  17. The military agreement between American, Australia, and New Zealand (ANZUS) was the sole the sole collective security pact.
  18. Ibid., 1523-26; U.S. minutes of the Third Session of the Ikeda-Robertson Talks, October 12, 1953, ibid. 1526-29; Dulles to the Embassy, October 14, 1953, ibid., 1530-31; Dulles to Embassy in Japan, October 22, 1953, ibid., 1538-39; Dulles to Embassy in Japan, October 24, 1953, ibid., 1539-42; Editorial Note, ibid., 1549-50. For a comprehensive examination of the internal and external controversies surrounding Japanese rearmament, see Martin Weinstein, Japan's Postwar Defense Policy, 1947-1968 (New York, 1971).
  19. Memorandum of discussion at the NSC Meeting of February 18, 1953, February 19, 1953, "132nd Meeting of the NSC," NSC Series, Whitman File; entry for Dec. 13, 1954, in Ferrell, ed., Hagerty Diary, 132-37; entry for December 14, 1954, ibid., 138-42. See also Samuel F. Wells, Jr., "The Origins of Massive Retaliation," Political Science Quarterly 86 (Spring 1991): 31-52.
  20. For evidence that the Bradley-led JCS were wedded to the status quo, see JCS 1883/33, Report by the Joint Strategic Survey Committee to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on the Review of the Current World Situation and Ability of the Forces Being Maintained to Meet United States Commitments, April 24, 1953, CCS 370 (5-25-48) Sec. 11, RG 218; N.E. Halaby for the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs (ISA) to the Director for Mutual Security, April 18, 1953, 334 NSC (1953), RG 330.
  21. Snyder, "New Look," 411.
  22. Jeffrey G. Barlow, Revolt of the Admirals: The Fight for Naval Aviation, 1945-1950 (Washington, D.C., 1994), 56-57, 243-59; 273-83; Douglas Kinnard, President Eisenhower and Strategy Management (Lexington, KY, 1977), 21. Eisenhower comments on the feud between the Navy and Air Force in his entry for January 27, 1949, in Ferrell, ed., Eisenhower Diaries, 154-56.
  23. Legislation enacted in 1952 gave the Commandant co-equal status with the JCS in Marine Corps-related matters.
  24. Watson, JCS History, 31-32.
  25. Memorandum by Carlton Savage of the Policy Planning Staff, February 10, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:231-34.
  26. NSC 141, 213-14.
  27. Report of the Panel of Consultants, "Armaments and American Policy," January 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:1067, 1083-84.
  28. The fiscally conservative NSC 149/2 stated the administration should "increase emphasis" on "protection of the continental United from enemy attack." NSC 149/2, ibid., 308 (emphasis in the original). Similarly, after revisions NSC 153/1 stated the policy of the administration was to "[e]mphasize the development of a continental defense system, including early warning, adequate to prevent disaster and to make secure the mobilization base necessary to achieve U.S. victory in the event of general war." It would also "Strengthen the defense position of the United States by non-military measures including development of a stronger civil defense, feasible reduction of urban vulnerability, and preparations to assure the continuity of government and essential production." NSC 153/1, ibid., 382.
  29. Memorandum by the Chairman of the Special Evaluation Subcommittee of the NSC (Lt. Gen. Idwal H. Edwards) to Lay, "Summary Evaluation of the Net Capability of the USSR to Inflict Direct Injury on the United States up to July 1, 1955," May 15, 1953, and Report of the Special Evaluation Subcommittee of the NSC, n.d., enclosed with Note by Lay to NSC, May 18, 1953, ibid.; 328-49; memorandum of NSC discussion, June 4, 1953, ibid., 367-70.
  30. In July the NSC Planning Board's Continental Defense Committee sent Cutler a lengthy report, which Lay circulated on July 22 as NSC 159. On August 14 the Interdepartmental Intelligence Conference and Interdepartmental Committee on Internal Security submitted a joint report, designated NSC 159/1, which was followed the next month by a JCS report--NSC 159/2. The NSC discussed the Planning Board's synthesis, NSC 159/3, on September 24, which with slight revisions Eisenhower approved as NSC 159/4 the next day.
  31. Memorandum of NSC discussion, September. 24, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:464-75; NSC 159/4, enclosed with Note by Lay to the NSC on Continental Defense, September. 25, 1953, ibid., 475-89. The quotes appear on p.478.
  32. NSC 162/2, 583.
  33. Watson, JCS History, 16.
  34. Except for Twining, whose term began on July 1, the new JCS were on "stand-by" status until mid-August. Nevertheless, Eisenhower instructed them to attend the July 16 special NSC meeting when the Solarium task forces presented their reports.
  35. Matthew B. Ridgway, Soldier: The Memoirs of Matthew B. Ridgway (New York, 1956), 265; Watson, JCS History, 16-17; Radford, From Pearl Harbor to Vietnam, 318-20. This published version of Radford's memoirs is true to the admiral's own unedited manuscript, which provides slightly more detail. "A Brief Resume of the Life and Experiences of Arthur W. Radford, Admiral, United States Navy (Ret.)--February 4, 1966," Volume II, Arthur W. Radford Collection, Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace, Stanford, California.
  36. Ibid.
  37. Watson, JCS History, 17-20; Radford, From Pearl Harbor to Vietnam, 321.
  38. Memorandum by Radford, Ridgway, Carney, and Twining to the secretary of defense, August 8, 1953, authors' possession. We are indebted to David Rosenberg for supplying us with a copy of this document.
  39. Prior to Eisenhower's departure for Denver, Radford personally briefed the president on the "new concept." One can infer from the JCS chief's verbatim reading of the memorandum at the start of the NSC meeting, moreover that in a departure from normal procedure, few if any of the members had previously received copies of it. Radford, From Pearl Harbor to Vietnam, 321-22; memorandum of Discussion of the NSC, August 27, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:443-55.
  40. Memorandum of NSC discussion, August 27, 1953, 444-45, 447.
  41. Ibid., 448. Twining actually said little at the meeting. Prior to the Sequoia exercise, however, he wrote to all the newly appointed service chiefs, "insufficient account has been taken of new weapons and their effect on the composition and employment of our forces, particularly in the field of atomic and thermonuclear weapons." Twining recommended that "we should accept these weapons as accomplished facts and employ them more fully ourselves while preparing to cope with them if they are used by the enemy." Twining memorandum to Radford, Ridgway, and Carney, July 20, 1953, quoted in Watson, JCS History, 17. The next month he went farther, arguing that "If we believe it unsafe, unwise, or immoral to gamble that the enemy will tolerate our existence under this circumstance [when the Soviets acquired the capability to "destroy the United States"], we must be militarily prepared to support such decisions as might involve general war. . . . We must recognize this time of decision, or, we will continue blindly down a suicidal path and arrive at a situation in which we will have entrusted our survival to the whims of a small group of proven barbarians." Memorandum by the Chief of Staff, U.S. Air Force, to the JCS on the Coming National Crisis," August 21, 1953, quoted in Scott D. Sagan, "The Perils of Proliferation: Organization Theory, Deterrence Theory, and the Spread of Nuclear Weapons," International Security 18 (Spring 1994): 79-80.
  42. Radford, From Pearl Harbor to Vietnam, 327.
  43. Memorandum of discussion of the NSC, August 27, 1953, 445.
  44. Roger Dingman, "Atomic Diplomacy During the Korean War," International Security 13 (Winter 1988/89): 50-91; Rosemary J. Foot, "Nuclear Coercion and the Ending of the Korean Conflict," ibid., 92-112.
  45. Robert A. Wampler, "NATO Strategic Planning and Nuclear Weapons: 1950-1957," Nuclear History Program Occasional Paper No. 6 (July 1990): 9-11.
  46. Frank Nash memorandum for the Secretary of Defense, May 5, 1953, CD 091.7 (Europe) 1953, OSD Central Decimal File, 1953, RG 330; Wilson memorandum to the president, June 2, 1953, ibid.
  47. Memorandum of Discussion of the NSC, August 27, 1953, 447. In his memoir Radford suggests that Ridgway would not have signed the memorandum had not he wanted "to get home to his young bride for the weekend." Radford, From Pearl Harbor to Vietnam, 321.
  48. Memorandum of Discussion of the NSC, August 27, 1953, 446, 450, 452.
  49. Ibid., 454.
  50. Cutler memorandum on August 27/53 NSC Meeting, September 1, 1953. Obtained through the FOIA, authors' possession.
  51. Cutler memorandum to Dulles, September 3, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:455-56.
  52. Memorandum by the Secretary of State, September 8, 1953, ibid., 457-60; Eisenhower memorandum to Dulles, 460-63. This meeting and the two memoranda will be discussed in the next chapter.
  53. Memorandum of discussion of NSC meeting of September 9, 1953, September 10, 1953, "161st Meeting of the NSC," NSC series, Whitman File. The account of this meeting in the JCS official history, which avers that the secretary "gave assurance that the strain on US foreign relations [resulting from the redeployment] would not be fatal" is misleading. Watson, JCS History, 21.
  54. NSC 162, FR, 1952-54, 2:491, 501, 505, 510..
  55. Memorandum of NSC discussion, October 7, 1953, ibid., 514-26.
  56. NSC 162, 503. This section became section 1 of NSC 162/2. See ibid., 578.
  57. NSC 162/2, 578, 588-89, 591, 593-94; NSC 162, 501-02, 505, 510.
  58. Memorandum of NSC discussion, October 13, 1953, ibid., 545-49.
  59. NSC 162, 494, 505-06; NSC 162/2, 582, 591; NSC 159/4, 477; memorandum by Radford, Ridgway, Carney, and Twining to the secretary of defense, August 8, 1953.
  60. Edwin H.J. Carns, for the JCS, to Wilson, October 27, 1953, ibid., 562-64 (authors's emphases).
  61. Memorandum of Discussion of NSC meeting, October 29, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:570. "What we want to do is to lessen the priority we have been keeping on Army ground troops and those parts of the Navy that do not deal with air and with sumbmarines," Eisenhower briefed the Republican legislative leaders shortly thereafter. Entry for December 13, 1954, in Ferrell, Hagerty Diary, 133.
  62. Memorandum of Discussion of NSC meeting, October 29, 1953, 571-74.
  63. NSC 162, 495-96.
  64. Ibid., 496-99.
  65. NSC 162, 494.
  66. Ibid., 497-98, and restated in NSC 162/2, 585.
  67. Memorandum of NSC discussion, October 29, 1953, 569.
  68. Memorandum by Radford, Ridgway, Carney, and Twining to the secretary of defense, August 8, 1953.
  69. NSC 162, 506.
  70. Memorandum by the JCS to Secretary of Defense Wilson, October 6, 1953, 61 D 167, S/P-NSC Files, RG59.
  71. Memorandum by the JCS to Wilson, October 27, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 563.
  72. Memorandum of NSC discussion, August 27, 1953, 454.
  73. Cutler memorandum to Dulles, September 3, 1953, 456-57.
  74. NSC 162. 508-09.
  75. Ibid.
  76. Memorandum of NSC discussion, October 7, 1953, 526-28.
  77. Ibid., 528-29,
  78. Dulles memorandum to Eisenhower, October 21, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:549-50.
  79. Memorandum of NSC discussion, October 29, 1953, 570-73.
  80. NSC 162/2, 593.
  81. Memorandum by Radford, Ridgway, Carney, and Twining to the secretary of defense, August 8, 1953.
  82. Memorandum by the JCS to Secretary of Defense Wilson, October 6, 1953.
  83. Memorandum of NSC discussion, October 7, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:532-35. (authors' emphasis)
  84. Memorandum of NSC discussion, October 13, 1953, ibid., 536-45. Shrinking the military forces after the Korean War had, ironically, been recommended in 1951 by then-JCS Chairman Bradley. In a hearing before the Senate Committees on Armed Forces and Foreign Relations, the General testified that maintaining armed forces of 3.5 million on active duty would be too costly; in his view, "[W]e would be much stronger" to keep smaller forces, readily available, and backed up by "well-trained reserves." Quoted in Snyder, "The New Look," 494.
  85. Memorandum of NSC discussion, October 13, 1953, 945-46.
  86. Ibid., 546.
  87. Memorandum of NSC discussion, March 25, 1954, ibid, 641-2. The same held true, Eisenhower said, if the Communists renewed their aggression in Korea.
  88. Ibid.
  89. Ibid.
  90. NSC 162/1, October 19, 1953, 61 D 167, S/P-NSC files, RG59.
  91. Robert Bowie memorandum to Dulles, October 28, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:565-66.
  92. JCS memorandum to Wilson, October 27, 1953, ibid., 563-64; NSC 162/2, 593.
  93. Memorandum of NSC discussion, October 13, 1953, 534-49.
  94. The following discussion of the preparation and approval of the JCS 2101/113, "Military Strategy to Support the National Security Policy Set Forth in NSC 162/2," draws on Watson, JCS History, 26-34.
  95. JCS 2101/113, "Military Strategy to Support the National Security Policy Set Forth in NSC 162/2," December 10, 1953, CCS 381 US (1-31-50) sec 32, CJCS files, RG218.
  96. Watson, JCS History, 30-31/
  97. Radford memorandum for Wilson and attachments, December 9, 1953, "Wilson, Charles 1953 (2)," Administration Series, Whitman File.
  98. At the time Eisenhower expressed "his strong feeling that General Ridgway was sincere in his view of the need for balanced U.S. military forces rather than upon atomic retaliatory capacity" and "was not merely presenting a 'parochial' Army viewpoint." After the 1955 testimony to Congress, however, the president lost his patience. "Gentleman, Ridgway is Chief of Staff of the Army," the president told his Congressional leaders. "Each service has as its head and has traditionally had as a head people who think that their service is the only service that can ultimately save the United States." The "trouble with Ridgway," Eisenhower further remarked, is that "[h]e's talking theory--I'm trying to talk sound sense." Memorandum of NSC meeting, December 3, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:804; entry for February 1, 1955, in Ferrell, Hagerty Diary, 181-84.
  99. Watson, JCS History, 32-34, 69.
  100. Watson, JCS History, 67-69. Congress further reduced new obligational authority from $30.993 to $29.584 billion and estimated expenditures from $37.575 to $35.533. Tables 9 and 10, ibid., 85-86.
  101. NSC 162/2, 593.
  102. Unsigned [sanitized] memorandum, "The Meaning of Paragraph 39b, NSC 162/2, as Understood by the Department of Defense," December 1, 1953, "Atomic Weapons, Correspondence & Background for Pres. Approval," NSC Series, Subject Subseries, WHO, OSANSA. As Radford wrote Dulles earlier, the JCS wanted the assurance that: "The United States will use atomic weapons in military operations in repelling aggression whenever it is of military advantage to do so in the following order of priority: (a) Immediately against military forces operating against us or our allies. (b) Against targets that would support the build-up of enemy military forces for renewed operations. (c) Unrestricted atomic operations for such attack on the United States or its allies." Radford memorandum to Dulles, October 13, 1953, CJCS 040, Atomic Energy Commission Files, RG 218.
  103. Cutler memorandum for the record, December 2, 1953, "Atomic Weapons, Correspondence & Background for Pres. Approval and Instructions (1)," NSC Series, Subject subseries, WHO, OSANSA.
  104. Smith memoranda for the President, December 3 and 22, 1953, ibid. (emphasis in the original); Strauss memorandum for Cutler, December 3, 1953, ibid; Lay memorandum for the president, December 16, 1953, ibid.
  105. Lay memorandum for Secretaries of State and Defense and Chairman, AEC, January 4, 1954, ibid. The following text is identical in the Lay and Smith memoranda.
  106. Radford, From Pearl Harbor to Vietnam, 326; text of an address to the National Press Club by Admiral Radford on the Defense Plans of the Nation, Deecember 14, 1953, New York Times, December 15, 1953. See also Interview with Admiral Arthur W. Radford, "Strong U.S. Defense for the 'Long Pull,'" U.S. News & World Report, March 5, 1954, 48-55.
  107. Foster Dulles telephone conversation with Allen Dulles, December 28, 1953, "December 1953 [Telephone calls] (2)," Chronological File, JFDP--Eisenhower.
  108. Robert R. Bowie memorandum for the Secretary," January 5, 1954, "Bowie, Robert R.," Selective Correspondence and Related Material, JFDP--Princeton; Dulles memorandum for the President, January 7, 1954, Eisenhower to Dulles, January 8, 1954, and Dulles to Eisenhower, January 8, 1954, all in "Dulles--January 1954," Dulles-Herter Series, Whitman File; Draft #8, Speech Before Council on Foreign Relations, January 7, 1954, "Re: 'The Evolution of Foreign Policy,'" Selective Correspondence and Related Material, JFDP-Princeton; Text of Speech by John Foster Dulles Before the Council on Foreign Relations, January 12, 1954, "The 'Massive Retaliation' Policy, 1954," ibid; Entry for January 12, 1954, in Ferrell, Hagerty Diary, 7.
  109. Representative even if somewhat delayed was Walter Lippmann's article in the New York Herald Tribune, March 18, 1954.
  110. Foster Dulles telephone conversation with Allen Dulles, January 14, 1953, "January 1954 [telephone calls] (2)," Chronological Series, JFDP--Eisenhower; Allen Dulles to Foster Dulles, February 9, 1953, "Re: Council on Foreign Relations," Allen W. Dulles Papers, Princeton, NJ; Hamilton Fish Armstrong to Dulles, February 5, 1954, "Re: Article by John Foster Dulles," Selective Correspondence and Related Material, JFDP-Princeton.
  111. Armstrong to Dulles, February 5, 1954.
  112. The Berlin conference of foreign ministers lasted from January 25-February 18, 1954.
  113. "Dulles memorandum of Luncheon conversation with the president," February 24, 1954, "Meetings with the President 1954 (4)," White House Memoranda Series, JFDP--Eisenhower; Hamilton Fish Armstrong to Dulles, February 24, 1954, "Re: Article by John Foster Dulles," Selective Correspondence and Related Material, JFDP-Princeton.
  114. Dulles, "Policy for Security and Peace," Foreign Affairs 32 (April 1954): 353-64.
  115. Ibid., 355-56.
  116. Ibid., 356.
  117. Ibid., 356, 358, 362.
  118. Ibid., 358.
  119. Ibid., 358-59.
  120. Ibid., 359, 362-63.

Chapter 13: Strengthening the Non-Communist World

  1. Inaugural Address, January 20, 1953, 4.
  2. NSC 162/2, 581, 579.
  3. Ibid., 588, 591-92, 595.
  4. Eisenhower's Address at Guildhall, London, England--June 12, 1945, reprinted as Appendix 1 to Stassen and Houts, Eisenhower, 361.
  5. Footnote in NSC 162/2, FR, 1952-54, 2:585.
  6. NSC 162/2, 579, 581, 586-87.
  7. "Our Relations with the Free World," August 3, 1953, "NSC 161, vol. 1, Status of US National Security Programs on June 30, 1953 (1)," NSC Series, Status of Projects, WHO, OSANSA.
  8. Memorandum by the Secretary of State, September 6, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:457. As early as September 1 Dulles had discussed his thinking with Cutler, who prior to the secretary's arrival in Denver had "outlined" it to Eisenhower. Cutler memorandum to Dulles, ibid., 455-56. Above the memorandum's original draft sentence concerning the "propitious" timing for "such a move" Dulles wrote, "This, I think, is important!" Draft memorandum, September 6, 1953, "Dulles/Korea/Security Policy," International Series, Whitman File. We will discuss later in this chapter the CIA's August 1953 orchestration of the ouster of Iran's prime minister Muhammed Mussadegh, perceived as a Soviet asset, and the Shah's return to the Peacock Throne. On September 5, 1953, even as Dulles drafted the memorandum, Adenauer scored a solid victory in the West German elections.
  9. Dulles memorandum for Bowie, September 8, 1953, "White House Correspondence 1953 (2)," White House Memoranda Series, JFDP-Eisenhower.
  10. The following discussion is based on Eisenhower memorandum to Dulles, September 8, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:460-63 (emphasis in the original). Earlier drafts of the memorandum can be found in "Dulles, Korea/Security Policy," International Series, Whitman File.
  11. Greenstein and Immerman, "What Did Eisenhower Tell Kennedy about Indochina?" 568-587.
  12. Periodically over the next several years, however, Dulles would raise the prospect of a diplomatic initiative aimed at inducing the Soviets to withdraw their forces from Eastern Europe. For example, shortly prior to the July 1955 Geneva Summit, he discussed in the NSC the potential for the Soviets agreeing to withdraw their troops from Eastern Europe and allowing the indigenous governments there to exercise greater political autonomy. The "big idea," he explained, "is to get the Russians out of the satellite states and to provide these states with a real sense of their freedom." Memorandum of NSC discussion, May 19, 1955, FR, 1955-57, 5:184.
  13. On double--or dual--containment, see Wolfram F. Hanreider, Germany, America, Europe: Forty Years of German Foreign Policy (New Haven, 1989); Thomas Schwartz, America's Germany: John J. McCloy and the Federal Republic of Germany (Cambridge, 1991).
  14. Hans-Jurgen Grabbe, "Konrad Adenauer, John Foster Dulles, and West German-American Relations," in Immerman, ed., Dulles, 109-32.
  15. NSC 162/2, 592.
  16. John Gillingham, Coal, Steel, and the Rebirth of Europe, 1945-1955: The Germans and French from Ruhr Conflict to Economic Community (NY, 1991).
  17. Dulles to Jean Monnet, May 23, 1950, "Monnet, Jean--1950," JFDP-Princeton; Memorandum of NSC meeting, August 13, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 7:502.
  18. U.S. delegation to the North Atlantic Council (NAC) to Department of State, August 24, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 5:374; McBride minutes of Second Tripartite Foreign Ministers meeting, July 11, 1953, ibid., 1623; Dulles to James B. Conant, November 20, 1953, "Germany 1953-54 (2)," Subject Series, JFDP--Eisenhower. (emphasis in original)
  19. Saki Dockrill, Britain's Policly for West German Rearmament: 1950-55 (Cambridge, England, 1991), 68-73. Eisenhower initially described the proposal for an integrated European army as "cockeyed an idea as a dope fiend could have figured out." Quoted in Thomas A. Schwartz, "Eisenhower and the Germans," in Gunter Bischof and Stephen E. Ambrose, eds, Eisenhower: A Centenary Assessment (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1995), 216.
  20. Quoted in Francois Duchene, Jean Monnet: The First Statesman of Interdependence (NY, 1994), 231.
  21. Dwight D. Eisenhower, "Unity of Europe--Essential for World Security," July 3, 1951, State Department Bulletin 25 (July 30, 1951), 163-65.
  22. Entry for July 7, 1953, "Diary Notes 1953," Hughes Papers.
  23. NSC 160/1, "United States Position with Respect to Germany," August 17, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 7:510-20; memorandum of NSC discussion, December 11, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 5:450-51; Saki Dockrill, "Cooperation and Suspicion: The United States' Alliance Diplomacy for the Security of Western Europe, 1953-54," Diplomacy and Statecraft 5 (March 1994): 138-82.
  24. NSC 162/2, 592; U.S. minutes of the Second Plenary Tripartite Meeting, December 5, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 5:1783. See also Rolf Steininger, "John Foster Dulles, the European Defense Community, and the Germany Question," in Immerman, ed., Dulles, 79-108.
  25. "Building Strength in Western Europe," September 18, 1953, p.42, enclosure to James S. Lay memorandum to the NSC Planning Board, October 12, 1953, "NSC 162, section 4," RG 273; Anne-Marie Burley, "Restoration and Reunification: Eisenhower's German Policy, in Richard A. Melanson and David Mayers, eds., Reevaluating Eisenhower: American Foreign Policy in the Fifties (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1987), 220-40..
  26. Negotiations concerning the creation of an E.P.C. were under way between the representatives of the European Coal and Steel Community and the Council of Europe. U.S. State Department representatives regularly attended the meetings. Established in 1948, the Council of Europe included Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands,and Luxembourg, the five members of the Brussels pact, plus Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Ireland (Eire), and Italy. In short order Iceland, Greece, Turkey, Western Germany, and Austria also joined. Draft Circular Telegram by the MSA, January 9, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 6:22-64; Memorandum by Rosalind Sawyer and Ruth Phillips, November 20, 1953, ibid., 324-29; Dulles to the Office of the United States Representative to the ECSC, November 21, 1953, ibid., 329-31. See also Duchene, Monnet, and Pascaline Winand, Eisenhower, Kennedy, and the United States of Europe (New York, 1993).
  27. Memorandum of conversation, February 1, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 5:1554; David Bruce to Dulles, July 7, 1953, "Strictly Confidential A-B (4)," General Correspondence and Memoranda Series, JFDP--Eisenhower. In July 1953 Congress adopted a Republican proposal to withhold 50% of the FY 1954 Mutual Security Program appropriations from any European nation that refused to ratify EDC.
  28. Memorandum of NSC discussion, December 10, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 5:450-51.
  29. Dulles telegram to Eisenhower, October 16, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 7:691-92; memorandum by the Director of the Office of British Commonwealth and Northern European Affairs (G. Hayden Raynor) to Douglas MacArthur II, November 16, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 5:1716. The best study of the British attitude toward the E.D.C. is Dockrill, Britain's Policy for West German Rearmament.
  30. Psychological Strategy Board, "An Evaluation of the Psychological Impact in the United Kingdom of United States Foreign Economic Policies and Programs," January 28, 1953, "President's Papers 1953 (10)," Special Assistant's Series, Presidential Subseries, WHO, OSANSA.
  31. Entry for December 21, 1951, Ferrell, ed., Eisenhower Diaries, 207-08.
  32. Dulles memorandum of conversation with Churchill, January 8, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 6:884; entry for January 6, 1953, Ferrell, ed., Eisenhower Diaries, 222-23.
  33. NSC 162/2, 486.
  34. Eisenhower to Harriman, April 20, 1951, DDEP, 12:225.
  35. NSC 162/2, 585-86, 592-93.
  36. Special Report Prepared by the Psychological Strategy Board, September 11, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 1:1484-86; NSC 162/2, 592. 586.
  37. "Building Strength in Western Europe," September 18, 1953, 20.
  38. Dillon to Department of State, FR, 1952-54, 5:386; Nash memorandum to Secretary of Defense, April 7, 1953, C.D. 350.05 (Briefing) 1953, OSD Central Decimal File, 1953, RG 330. Wilson also attended the meeting.
  39. "Our Relations with the Free World," August 3, 1953, "NSC 161, vol. 1, Status of US National Security Programs on June 30, 1953 (1)," NSC Series, Status of Projects, WHO, OSANSA; Dulles draft memorandum for Merchant, July 7, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 5:429; Colonel Harrison Gerhart memorandum for Frank Nash, August 5, 1953, 334 NATO (Annual Review), Assistant Secretary for Defense, International Security Affairs, 1953 Files, RG 330; Gerhart memorandum for Najeeb Halaby, July 23, 1953, ibid.
  40. NSC 162/2, 585-86, 592-93.
  41. "Building Strength in Western Europe," September 18, 1953, 31-32.
  42. Memorandum Prepared in the Department of State, "Concept and Ideas for Psychological Warfare in Europe Developed by the Chiefs of Mission Meeting at Luxembourg on September 18-19, 1953," October 1, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 6:679. See also Aldrich to Department of State, February 26, 1953, ibid., 891.
  43. NSC 162/2, 586.
  44. Dulles, "The 'Big Three' Alliance," July 19, 1954, "Think Pieces--Drafts (1)," Subject Series," JFDP-Eisenhower.
  45. Memorandum of NSC meeting, December 10, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 5:452. See also "United States Foreign Policy," May 16, 1954, enclosed to Dulles memorandum for Merchant and Bowie, May 15, 1954, "General Foreign Policy Matters (2)," White House Memoranda Series, JFDP--Eisenhower. Ironically, it had been the Europeans, most notably the British, who had initially championed the incorporation of atomic weapons into NATO's war plans as a means both to lessen the cost of and irrevocably tie the United States to the defense of the continent. Wampler, "NATO Strategic Planning and Nuclear Weapons, 1950-1957." For an extended discussion, see idem., Ambiguous Legacy.
  46. "Building Strength in Western Europe," September 18, 1953, 15. The quote is underscored by hand on the copy released to the authors through the FOIA.
  47. Memorandum of NSC meeting, February 11, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 15:769-70. Even prior to Eisenhower's election, Europe's sense of profound vulnerability was palpable. Truman's casual press conference remark that the use of atomic weapons was under "active consideration" following the Chinese intervention in Korea provoked "shock and outrage" across the continent. Kaufman, Korean War, 111-12.
  48. Memorandum of NSC meeting, February 11, 1953, 769-70. At a post-armistice tripartite meeting in Bermuda, Eisenhower and Dulles did discuss the use of atomic weapons in the event of renewed Communist aggression. The British and French "exhibited very stubborn resistance." See, for example, United States delegation minutes of the Second Restricted Tripartite meeting of the heads of Government, December 7, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 5:1816-18; memorandum of NSC Meeting, December 10, 1953, ibid., 1847.
  49. Memorandum of NSC meeting, March 31, 1953, ibid., 826-27.
  50. Memorandum of NSC meeting, December 10, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 5:451.
  51. NSC 162/2, 593. (authors' emphasis) On the administration's continuing difficulty in reaching an accord with the allies, see Robert A. Wampler, "Eisenhower, NATO, and Nuclear Weapons: The Strategy and Political Economy of Alliance Security," in Bischof and Ambrose, eds., Eisenhower, 162-90.
  52. Eisenhower to Alfred Gruenther, May 4, 1953, "December 1952-July 1953 (1)," Diary Series, Whitman File; memorandum of NSC meeting, March 18, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 1:593-95; memorandum of NSC meeting, March 31, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 2:265-67, 278.
  53. NSC 162, September 30, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:507; memorandum of NSC meeting, October 7, 1953, ibid, 525-26; NSC 162/2, ibid., 592.
  54. Memorandum of NSC meeting, March 31, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 1:273-278; memorandum of NSC meeting, April 8, 1953, ibid., 289; notes of Legislative Leadership Meeting, April 30, 1954, "1953 (4)," Legislative Series," Whitman File; minutes of Cabinet Meeting, August 27, 1953, "August 27, 1953," Cabinet Series, Whitman File; memorandum of NSC meeting, July 30, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:436-8; memorandum of NSC meeting, April 28, 1953, ibid., 303.
  55. Memorandum for Dodge, July 20, 1953, "Legislative Leaders Meeting, July 20, 1953," Legislative Series, Whitman File; Reichard, Reaffirmation of Republicanism, 71-6; Watson, JCS History, 205-209.
  56. Entries for July 2 and July 24, 1953, in Ferrell, ed., Eisenhower Diaries, 242-45, 249.
  57. Annual Message to the Congress on the State of the Union, February 2, 1953, PPP, Eisenhower, 1953, 15-16.
  58. NSC 162/2, 592.
  59. Eisenhower established the Commission on Foreign Economic Policy on August 7, 1953. A week later he appointed Randall the Chair. Randall had recently published an homage to liberal trade, A Creed for Free Enterprise (Boston, 1952).
  60. Commission on Foreign Economic Policy, Report to the President and the Congress (Washington, D.C., 1954). The transcripts of the Commission's hearings and related documents are located in the U.S. President's Commission on Foreign Economic Policy Records, Eisenhower Library. See also Randall's own journal, in the Clarence Randall Papers, Princeton University Library.
  61. Burton I. Kaufman, Trade and Aid: Eisenhower's Foreign Economic Policy, 1953-1961 (Baltimore, 1982), 15-31, esp. p.24. In 1955 Congress extended the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act for three years, and again for four years in 1958.
  62. Memorandum of NSC meeting, March 18, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 1:939-42; NSC 104/2, "United States Policies and Programs in the Economic Field which May Affect the War Potential of the Soviet Bloc," April 12, 1951, FR, 1951, 1:1059-60. The Truman administration initiated the program to restrict Western trade with the Soviet Bloc in 1948.
  63. NSC 152, "Review of Economic Defense Policy," May 25, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 1:968-81.
  64. Memorandum of NSC meeting, March 18, 1953, ibid., 939-940; entry for March 2, 1953, Hughes Diary, "Diary Notes, 1953," Hughes Papers.
  65. Memorandum of NSC meeting, March 18, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 1:939-940; memorandum of NSC Meeting, June 17, 1954, ibid., 1200. We take the liberty of using the 1954 quotes because it so accurately and explicitly captures Eisenhower consistent thinking.
  66. Memorandum of NSC meeting, July 30, 1953, ibid., 1004-09; Qing Simei, "The Eisenhower Administration and Changes in Western Embargo Policy Against China, 1954-1955," in Warren I. Cohen and Akira Iriye, eds., The Great Powers in East Asia, 1953-1960 (NY, 1990), 125.
  67. NSC 152/2, "Statement of Policy by the National Security Council on Economic Defense," July 31, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 1:1009-1011.
  68. Ibid., 1012-14; NSC 162/2, 586, 592.
  69. Commission on Foreign Economic Policy, Report, 65-68; Tor Egil Forland, "'Selling Firearms to the Indians': Eisenhower's Export Control Policy, 1953-54," Diplomatic History 15 (Spring 1991): 221-44; Robert Mark Spaulding, Jr., "'A Gradual and Moderate Relaxation': Eisenhower and the Revision of American Export Control Policy, 1953-1955," Diplomatic History 17 (Spring 1993): 223-49.
  70. Appendix A to Rostow to Jackson, June 9, 1953, "Bermuda Conference Briefing Book [June-July 1953] (2)," C.D. Jackson Records.
  71. NSC 162/2, 583; 587.
  72. Ibid.
  73. "Building Strength in Regional Groupings in the Far East," September 18, 1953, 14.
  74. Entry for January 6, 1953, in Ferrell, ed., Eisenhower Diaries, 223-24. See also entry for July 22, 1954, in Ferrell, ed., Hagerty Diary, 96-97.
  75. Entry for January 6, 1953, in Ferrell, ed., Eisenhower Diaries, 223.
  76. Representative of the immense literature are George C. Herring and Richard H. Immerman, "Eisenhower, Dulles, and Dienbienphu: The 'Day We Didn't Go to War Revisited,'" The Journal of American History 71 (September 1984): 343-363; Richard H. Immerman, "Between the Unattainable and the Unacceptable: Eisenhower and Dienbienphu," in Melanson and Mayers, eds., Reevaluating Eisenhower, 120-154; Lawrence S. Kaplan, Denise Artaud, and Mark R. Rubin, eds., Dien Bien Phu and the Crisis of Franco-American Relations, 1954-55 (Lanham, MD, 1990); Melanie Billings-Yun, Decision Against War: Eisenhower and Dien Bien Phu (New York, 1988); David L. Anderson, Trapped By Success: The Eisenhower Administration and Vietnam, 1953-61 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991).
  77. Entry for January 6, 1953, in Ferrell, ed., Eisenhower Diaries, 223-24.
  78. This argument is developed impressively in Peter L. Hahn, The United States, Great Britian, and Egypt, 1945-1956: Strategy and Diplomacy in the Early Cold War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991).
  79. Entry for January 6, 1953, in Ferrell, ed., Eisenhower Diaries, 223-24; entry for December 14, 1954, in Ferrell, ed., Hagerty Diary, 142.
  80. NSC 162/2, 586.
  81. Ibid., 587-88.
  82. NSC 141/1, United States Objectives and Courses of Action with respect to Latin America, March 18, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 4:6-10; J.C.S. 1888/34, July 20, 1953, Report by the Joint Strategic Survey Committee to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on the Review of the Current World Situation and Ability of the Forces being Maintained to meet United States Commitments, CCS 370 (5-25-48) Sec. 11, RG 218. See also, Kaufman, Trade and Aid; Richard H. Immerman, The CIA in Guatemala: The Foreign Policy of Intervention (Austin, 1982); Stephen G. Rabe, Eisenhower and Latin America: The Foreign Policy of Anticommunism (Chapel Hill, 1988); and Thomas Zoumaris, "Eisenhower's Foreign Economic POlicy: The Case of Latin America," in Melanson and Mayers, eds., Reevaluating Eisenhower, 154-91. Later, as noted in the conclusion, the administration placed more emphasis on providing Africa, and especially Latin America, with economic assistance.
  83. NSC 162/2, 593, 595.
  84. Memorandum of NSC meeting, October 7, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:524-26.
  85. NSC 161/1, "U.S. Policy Towards Communist China, "November 6, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 14:279.
  86. NSC 162/2, 580.
  87. NSC Staff study attached to NSC 161/1, FR, 1952-54, 14:291-92.
  88. NSC 148, Statement of Policy Proposed by the National Security Council on United States Policies in the Far East, enclosed with Lay to the NSC, April 6, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 12:287.
  89. NSC 162/2, 586.
  90. NSC Staff study attached to NSC 161/1, FR, 1952-54, 14:301; Dulles to the Embassy in Japan, October 9, 1953, ibid., 1523-24.
  91. United States Minutes of the Second Meeting between President Rhee and Dulles, August 6, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 14:1474; Dulles to the Embassy in Japan, October 9, 1953, ibid., 1523; memorandum of NSC meeting, June 25, 1953, ibid., 1438-40; memorandum of meeting between Dulles and Anthony Eden, June 29, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 6:1116-1117.
  92. "Building Strength in Regional Groupings in the Far East, September 18, 1953, p.3, enclosure to James S. Lay, Jr. memorandum for the NSC Planning Board, October 12, 1954, "NSC 162, Section 4," RG 273; NSC staff study attached to NSC 161/1, 301, 305-06.
  93. Memorandum of NSC meeting, April 8, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 14:1406-08.
  94. NSC 149/2, FR, 1952-54, 2:312-13; "Building Strength in Regional Groupings in the Far East," September 18, 1953, 28; NSC 125/6, United States Objectives and Courses of Action with Respect to Japan," enclosed with Note from Gleason to NSC, June 29, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 14:1449; substance of discussion of State-DMS-JCS meeting, January 28, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 13:361.
  95. Editorial Note, FR, 1952-54, 14:1411-15; memorandum by Robertson to Dulles, June 16, 1953, ibid., 1434-35; memorandum of NSC discussion, June 25, 1953, ibid., 14:1438-40; Myron Cowen to David K. E. Bruce, October 1, 1952, FR, 1952-54, 6:199; Bruce to Cowen, October 21, 1952, ibid., 217-18. Significantly, Britain and other Western European nations opposed Japanese admission to General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) until 1955.
  96. Memorandum of conversation by Roderic L. O'Connor, March 10, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 14:1389-90.
  97. "Building Strength in Regional Groupings in the Far East," September 18, 1953, 28; Sayurai Shimizu, Creating People of Plenty: The United States and Japan's Economic Alternatives, 1953-1958 (Ph.D. diss., Cornell University, 1991).
  98. "Building Strength in Regional Groupings in the Far East," September 18, 1953,, p.3; NSC 161/1, 281.
  99. Memorandum of conversation by O'Connor, March 10, 1953, 1389-90; Dulles to Embassy in Japan, March 12, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 14:1394-97; Memorandum of NSC meeting, June 25, 1953, ibid., 1438-40; Robertson memorandum to Dulles, July 30, 1953, ibid., 1464-66.
  100. Robertson memorandum to Dulles, July 30, 1953, 1464-66; United States Minutes of the Second Meeting between President Rhee and Dulles, August 6, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 14:1473-77; memorandum of NSC meeting, April 8, 1953, ibid., 1406-08; charge in the Republic of China to Department of State, June 18, 1953, ibid., 205-06.
  101. Memorandum of NSC meeting, July 30, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:436.
  102. "Building Strength in Regional Groupings in the Far East," September 18, 1953, 9-10.
  103. NSC staff study attached to NSC 161/1, 302, 305-06; NSC 161/1, 282.
  104. Memorandum of the substance of discussion at a State-JCS meeting, March 27, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 14:165; memorandum of NSC meeting, April 8, 1953, ibid., 180-82; charge in the Republic of China to Department of State, June 23, 1953, ibid., 213; United States Minutes of the Second Meeting between President Rhee and Dulles, August 6, 1953, ibid., 1473-77; John Allison to Department of State, September 3, 1953, ibid., 1491-96; same to same, September 7, 1953, ibid., 1497-1502; NSC staff study, attached to NSC 161/1, ibid., 305-06; NSC Staff Study on United States Objectives and Courses of Action with Respect to Formosa and the Chinese National Goverment, enclosed with NSC 146/2, United States Objectives and Courses of Action with respect to Formosa and the Chinese National Goverment, November 6, 1953, ibid., 312-15, 324-25.
  105. "Building Strength in Regional Groupings in the Far East," September 18, 1953, 23.
  106. Carlton Ogburn memorandum to Allison, January 21, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 12 (part 1):260-63; W.B. Smit to Wilson, August 21, 1953, ibid., 335-6.
  107. Report by Dulles on Churchill Talks, January 8, 1953, ibid., 258-60; Holmes to Department of State, June 12, 1953, ibid., 318; Aldrich to Department of State, June 16, 1953, ibid., 318-19.
  108. W.B. Smit to Wilson, August 21, 1953, ibid., 335-6; Report by Dulles on Churchill Talks, January 8, 1953, ibid., 258-60; Dulles memorandum to Merchant and MacArthur, September 8, 1953, ibid., 339-40. It warrants mention that the British perceived America's prominence in their traditional sphere of interest as a blow to their prestige and an indicator of U.S. intent to "ease them out of the picture" and "replace them in a position of proctorship." See, Armastead M. Lee memorandum of conversation with Radford, et.al., July 15, 1953, ibid., 328-330; Sebald to Dept. of State, July 31, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 12 (part 2):122-24; Aldrich to Department of State, September 17, 1953, ibid., 141-43; Sebald to Department of State, September 28, 1953, ibid., 149-51.
  109. Ogburn memorandum to Allison, January 21, 1953, ibid., 260-63; U.S. minutes of the second meeting, ANZUS Council, September 19, 1953, ibid., 344-51; Aldrich to Department of State, September 17, 1953, ibid., 141-43; Memorandum prepared by the Department of State for the NSC Planning Board, "Current Situation in the Philippines," January 14, 1954, ibid., 575-79; Dulles to Embassy in Philippines, November 20, 1953, ibid., 564. Ramon Magsaysay's election as president of the Philippines at the end of 1953 represented the administration's best hope. In addition to the above references, see Nick Cullather, Illusion of Influence: The Political Economy of United States-Phillipines Relations (Stanford, 1994), 96-125.
  110. NSC 162/2, 587, 591-92.
  111. Steven Freiberger, Dawn Over Suez: The Rise of American Power in the Middle East, 1953-1957 (Chicago, 1992).
  112. Peter L. Hahn, "Containment and Egyptian Nationalism: The Unsuccessful Effort to Establish the Middle East Command, 1950-1953," Diplomatic History 11 (Winter 1987): 23-40.
  113. Ibid.; J.C.S. 1888/34, July 20, 1953, Report by the Joint Strategic Survey Committee to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on the Review of the Current World Situation and Ability of the Forces being Maintained to meet United States Commitments, CCS 370 (5-25-48) Sec. 11, RG 218. See also H.W. Brands, Jr., "The Cairo-Tehran Connection in Anglo-American Rivalry in the Middle East, 1951-1953," The International History Review 11 (August 1989): 434-56.
  114. Dulles to Department of State, May 26, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 9:147; memorandum of NSC Meeting, June 1, 1953, ibid, 381, 384.
  115. Robert J. McMahon, "United States Cold War Strategy in South Asia: Making a Military Commitment to Pakistan, 1947-1954," Journal of American History 75 (December 1988):812-40; idem., The Cold War on the Periphery: The United States, India, and Pakistan (NY, 1994), 80-170.
  116. NSC 162/2, 593.
  117. Memorandum of NSC meeting, December 21, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 2:837-38; H.W. Brands, Jr., The Specter of Neutralism: The United States and the Emergence of the Third World, 1947-1960 (New York, 1989).
  118. Memorandum of NSC meeting, October 7, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:524-25; memorandum of NSC meeting, December 21, 1954, ibid., 837-38; memorandum of conversation, January 5, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 11:1838-39; memorandum of conversation, January 14, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 9:453-54.
  119. McMahon, Cold War on the Periphery, 173-188, 207.
  120. "Bloc Political Warfare Strengths," Appendix C to NIE-90, "Soviet Bloc Capabilities Through Mid-1955," approved August 11, 1953," and Appendices, approved September 29, 1953, 26, FOIA from CIA, authors' possession.
  121. Omar N. Bradley for the Joint Chiefs of Staff memorandum to the Secretary of Defense, Review of the Current World Situation and Ability of the Forces Being Maintained to Meet United States Commitments, March 4, 1953, CCS 370 (5-25-48) Sec 11, RG 218; J.C.S. 1888/33, April 24, 1953, Report by the Joint Strategic Survey Committee to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on the Review of the Current World Situation and Ability of the Forces being maintained to meet United States Commitments, ibid.
  122. Peter Grose, Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles (Boston, 1994), 332-338.
  123. "Report on the Covert Activities of the Central Intelligence Agency" (Doolittle Report), September 30, 1954, in William M. Leary, ed., The Central Intelligence Agency: History and Documents (University, AL, 1984), 143-45. See also Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones, The CIA & American Democracy (New Haven, 1989), 70.
  124. Raymond L. Garthoff, "Assessing the Adversary: Estimates by the Eisenhower Administration of Soviet Intentions and Capabilities," Brookings Occasional Papers (1991): 16-17.
  125. James Hershberg, James B. Conant: Harvard to Hiroshima and the Making of the Nuclear Age (NY, 1993), 660-63; Klaus Larres, "Preserving Law and Order: Britain, the United States, and the East German Uprising of 1953," Twentieth Century British History 5 (1994):320-50; Valur Ingimundarson, "The Eisenhower Administration, the Adenauer Government, and the Political Uses of the East German Uprising in 1953," Diplomatic History 20 (Summer 1996): 381-409; and Christian F. Ostermann, "'Keeping the Pot Simmering': The United States and the East German Uprising of 1953," German Studies Review 19 (February 1996): 61-89.
  126. Memorandum of discussion of NSC meeting, July 30, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:438-39, 440. Eisenhower's cautious response to the Hungarian uprising in 1956, of course, remains controversial.
  127. Kermit Roosevelt, Countercoup: The Struggle for Control of Iran (New York, 1979); John Prados, Presidents' Secret Wars: CIA and Pentagon Covert Operations Since World War II (New York, 1986), 92-98; and Christopher Andrew, For the President's Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington To Bush (New York, 1995), 202-06. See also Mark Gasiorowski, U.S. Foreign Policy and the Shah: Building a Client State in Iran (Ithaca, 1991).
  128. AJAX inspired SUCCESS, the CIA operation against Guatemala's Jacobo Arbenz Guzman the next year. Immerman, The CIA in Guatemala, 135.
  129. National Intelligence Estimate [NIE]-76, Conditions and Trends in the Middle East Affecting U.S. Security, January 15, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 9:334-40. (authors' emphasis) See also, NSC 155/1, United States Objectives and Policies with Respect to the Near East, July 14, 1953, ibid., 399-400; Some Comparable Data on the Soviet Bloc as of Mid-1954 (Prepared by the CIA), August 18, 1954, "NSC 5430 (7)," NSC series, Status of Projects subseries, WHO, OSANSA.
  130. NSC 162/2, 593, 595, 592.
  131. "Progress Report on Foreign Intelligence Program," enclosed with Allen W. Dulles memorandum to Executive Secretary, February 6, 1953, "Background Documents on NSC 142," RG 273, NA; Sig Mickelson, America's Other Voice: The Story of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty (NY, 1983), . Evidence suggests, however, including recent evidence on the East German and Hungarian uprisings, that the influence of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty on discontented East Europeans was not as great as was once thought. See Cold War International History Project Bulletin 5 (Spring 1995).
  132. Report of the Psychological Strategy Board on the Psychological Program (Part 6 of NSC 142), January 21, 1953, "Status of U.S. Programs for National Security as of December 31, 1952 (5)," Status of Projects Subseries, NSC Series, WHO, OSANSA.
  133. Robert H. Lounsbury memorandum to William H. Jackson, March 8, 1953, "JC Numbered Documents (7)," PCIIA Records; R. W. Tufts memorandum for Mr. Jackson, May 19, 1953, "Rockefeller Committee Report," ibid. See also Townsend Hoopes, JC114, "Some Thoughts on the Problem," February 6, 1953, "JC Numbered Documents (7)," ibid.; Charles E. Bohlen testimony to PCIIA, Feb. 24, 1953, "JC Numbered Documents (3)," ibid; "Non-Military Factors Affecting Bloc Capabilities," Appendix A to NIE-90, "Soviets Bloc Capabilities Through Mid-1955," approved August 11, 1953," and Appendices, approved September 29, 1953, Records of the Central Intelligence Agency, RG 263, NA. The Jackson's Committee reflected this view. Jackson Committee Report, 1823-34.
  134. Report of the Department of State, Annex A to Psychological Strategy Board, Report on the Psychological Program (part 6 of NSC 142), January 21, 1953, "NSC 142, Status of U.S. Security Programs for National Security, December 31, 1952 (5)," Status of Project Series, NSC Series, WHO, OSANSA; 155/1, July 14, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 9: 399-400; William Stivers, "Eisenhower and the Middle East," in Melanson and Mayers, eds., Reevaluating Eisenhower, 192-220.
  135. Ibid.; Psychological Strategy Board, Report on the Psychological Program (part 6 of NSC 142), January 21, 1953.

Chapter 14: Reducing the Nuclear Danger: Arms Control

  1. Eisenhower, Waging Peace, 467.
  2. Memorandum of NSC meeting, May 27, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 2:1455.
  3. Memorandum by the President to C. D. Jackson, December 31, 1953, ibid., 1321-22; summary of meeting in the White House, January 16, 1954, ibid., 1342.
  4. Richard G. Hewlett, "From Proposal to Program," in Joseph F. Pilate, Robert E. Pendley, and Charles K. Ebinger, eds., Atoms for Peace: An Analysis after Thirty Years (Boulder, 1985), 27; Richard G. Hewlett and Jack M. Holl, Atoms for Peace and War (Berkeley, 1989), 1-16.
  5. Inaugural Address, January 20, 1953, PPP, Eisenhower, 1953, 5.
  6. "Annual Report," State Department Bulletin (April 14, 1952): 572-79.
  7. Quoted in Lewis L. Strauss, Men and Decisions (Garden City, NY, 1962), 336. (emphasis in original)
  8. Eisenhower, Waging Peace, 653.
  9. Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State (Bruce) to Lay, January 19, 1953, FR, 1952-4, 2: 1091-96; Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State (Smith) to Lay, February 17, 1953, ibid., 1103-08. Approved on January 19, 1951, the title of NSC 112 was "Formulation of a United States Position with Respect to the Regulation, Limitation, and Balanced Reduction of Armed Forces and Armaments."
  10. Report by the Panel of Consultants of the Department of State to the Secretary of State, "Armaments and American Policy," January 1953, ibid., 1056-91.
  11. Ibid., 1059-63.
  12. Ibid., 1075-76.
  13. Ibid., 1063. The reference to America's commitment to atomic retaliation was based on the pre-New Look Truman policy.
  14. Ibid., 1073.
  15. Ibid., 1074-7.
  16. Ibid., 1077.
  17. Ibid., 1081-88.
  18. Ibid., 1088-91.
  19. Memorandum of NSC meeting, February 18, 1953, ibid., 1107.
  20. Ibid., 1107-08.
  21. Memorandum of NSC meeting, February 25, 1953, ibid., 1110-1114.
  22. Entry for December 10, 1953, Eisenhower Diaries, 261-62; Eisenhower to Captain E. E. ("Swede") Hazlett, Jr., December 24, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:1309-10; Eisenhower, Waging Peace, 467-68.
  23. Eisenhower to Milton Eisenhower, December 11, 1953, "Atoms for Peace," Administrative Series, Whitman File.
  24. Eisenhower, Waging Peace, 469.
  25. Memorandum of NSC meeting, May 27, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 2:1455.
  26. Hughes, The Ordeal of Power, 102-04. See also Walt W. Rostow, Open Skies: Eisenhower's Proposal of July 21, 1955 (Austin, 1982).
  27. Memorandum of NSC meeting, February 18, 1953, FR, 1952-54. 2:1107-08.
  28. This directive was issued by the Executive Committee on Regulation of Armaments (RAC), composed of the Secretaries of State and Defense and the Chairman of the AEC, on May 26, 1953. See FR, 1952-54, 2:1160-69. See also, Dulles to Lodge, June 4, 1953, ibid., 1175-76.
  29. Report to the NSC by the NSC Planning Board on Possibility of a New United States Disarmament Proposal in the Eighth General Assembly, September 1, 1953, ibid., 1190-1201.
  30. Memorandum of NSC meeting, September 9, 1953, ibid., 1210-12; memorandum by the deputy assistant secretary of state for UN affairs (Sandifer) to Smith, September 14, 1953, ibid., 1214-15; memorandum of NSC meeting, September 17, 1953, ibid., 1216-18.
  31. NSC 162/2, 584-85.
  32. Ibid., 584-95.
  33. NSC 162, September 30, 1953, 512.
  34. Ibid.
  35. Memorandum of NSC discussion, October 7, 1953, ibid., 529-30.
  36. Memorandum by the JCS to Wilson, June 23, 1954, ibid., 680-86; Watson, JCS History, 45-46.
  37. NSC 5422, "Tentative Guidelines Under NSC 162/2 for FY 1956," June 14, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 2:656.
  38. Memorandum of NSC meeting, June 24, 1954, ibid., 687-88.
  39. NSC 5422/2, August 7, 1954, ibid., 715-16.
  40. NSC 5440, "Basic National Security Policy," December 13, 1954, ibid., 818-19; memorandum by the JCS to Wilson, December 17, 1954, ibid., 829..
  41. NSC 5440, 818-19.
  42. Appendix to JCS to Wilson, December 17, 1954, ibid., 831.
  43. Memorandum of NSC meeting, December 21, 1954, ibid., 833-44. The revised Basic National Security Policy was approved as NSC 5501 on January 7, 1955. See FR, 1955-57, 20:24-38. Paragraph 40 concerning negotiations is on p.36.
  44. NSC 151, Interim Report by the Ad Hoc Committee of the NSC Planning Board on Armaments and American Policy, May 8, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:1150-60; memorandum of NSC meeting, May 27, 1953, ibid., 1169-74, ibid., 1169-74.
  45. Jackson memorandum for the files, "Chronology--'Atoms for Peace' Project," September 30, 1953, ibid., 126-27; Jackson to Smith, September 25, 1953, ibid., 1223-24.
  46. Jackson memorandum to Eisenhower, October 2, 1953, ibid., 1224-26.
  47. See chapter 13. For evidence that Dulles's "package" arose from consideration of his September 6 memorandum, see Dulles memorandum for Bowie, September 8, 1953, "White House Correspondence 1953 (2)," White House Memoranda Series, JFDP-Eisenhower; Dulles memorandum for the President, May 12, 1954, "White House Correspondence, 1954 (3)," ibid.
  48. Dulles memorandum for Bowie, September 8, 1953; Dulles to Bowie, October 9, 1953, attached to Draft #1, October 4, 1953, "Candor Speech, December 8, 1953 (1)," Draft Presidential Correspondence and Speeches Series," DP--Eisenhower.
  49. Ibid.; "Material for Second Half of Atomic Speech," attached to Dulles memorandum for Cutler, October 13, 1953, "Atoms for Peace--Evolution (3)," Time, Inc. File, C.D. Jackson Papers.
  50. Memorandum of Discussion of the NSC Planning Board, October 19, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:1227-32; Cutler memorandum to Dulles, October 19, 1953, ibid., 1232-33; Cutler memorandum to Eisenhower, October 19, 1953, ibid., 1233-34. See also Frank Nash memorandum for Cutler, October 17, 1953, CD 388.3, OSD Central Decimal File, 1953, RG 330, NA.
  51. Dulles memorandum for the President, October 21, 1953, "General Foreign Policy Matters (4)," White House Memoranda Series, JFDP--Eisenhower. The Tripartite Foreign Ministers Meeting in London was held from October 16-18, 1953. Following it Dulles met with representatives of the Federal German Republic and North Atlantic Council.
  52. Dulles memorandum to Eisenhower, October 23, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:1234-35.
  53. Eisenhower to Hazlett, December 24, 1953, ibid., 1309; Cutler memorandum September 10, 1953, ibid., 1213.
  54. Strauss memorandum for the President, September 17, 1953, ibid., 1219. See also Strauss, Men and Decisions, 357.
  55. Bowie memorandum to Dulles, October 30, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:1235-40; memorandum of NSC meeting, November 12, 1953, ibid., 1244-46.
  56. Robert R. Bowie, "Eisenhower, Atomic Weapons and Atoms for Peace," in Pilate, Pendley and Ebinger, eds., Atoms for Peace, 22; Charles A. Appleby, Jr., Eisenhower and Arms Control, 1953-1961: The Balance of Risks, (Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, 1987), 32.
  57. The phrases in quotes are from the UNGA resolution of ten days earlier urging the Disarmament Commission to adopt such a procedure.
  58. Eisenhower address to the UN General Assembly, December 8, 1953, PPP, Eisenhower, 1953, 813-22.
  59. Entry for December 10, 1953, Ferrell, Eisenhower Diaries, 261-62.
  60. Dulles to Embassy in the Soviet Union, December 6, 1953, FR, 1952-54, 2:1286-87; Bohlen to Department of State, December 7, 1953, ibid., 1287-88.
  61. Bowie memorandum December 28, 1953, ibid., 1312-14; Jackson to Eisenhower, December 29, 1953, ibid., 1314-16; Eisenhower memorandum to Jackson, December 31, 1953, ibid., 1321-22.
  62. Dulles memorandum of conversation with Eisenhower, January 5, 1954, ibid., 1322-23; Summary of Dulles meeting on implementation of the President's December 8th speech, January 6, 1954, ibid., 1324-30.
  63. Summary of meeting in the White House, January 16, 1954, ibid., 1342-43.
  64. See mormandum by Bowie to Dulles, October 30, 1953, ibid., 123-40; memorandum of NSC meeting, November 12, 1953, ibid., 1244-46.
  65. NSC Action #1035, February 11, 1954, quoted in memorandum by the deputy assistant secretary of state for UN affairs (Wainhouse) to Lodge, March 20, 1954, ibid., 1378.
  66. Wilson to Dulles, April 12, 1954, ibid., 1383-84.
  67. Acting Secretary of State to Wilson, April 17, 1954, ibid., 1386.
  68. Memorandum of telephone conversation between Dulles and Strauss, March 29, 1953, ibid., 1379-80; memorandum by the deputy under secretary of state (Murphy) to Dulles, April 1, 1954, ibid., 1380-82; Lodge to Department of State, April 12, 1954, ibid., 1383.
  69. Memorandum of NSC meeting, May 6, 1954, ibid., 1423-29.
  70. Acting Secretary of Defense (Anderson) to Dulles with attached annex,, May 17, 194, ibid., 1437-1440; Wilson to Dulles, June 4, 1954, ibid., 147-58.
  71. Memorandum of NSC meeting, May 27, 1954, ibid., 1452-55. The quote appears on p.1455.
  72. Dulles memorandum to Lay, June 23, 1954, ibid., 1463-67.
  73. Memorandum of NSC meeting, June 23, 1954, ibid., 1467-72.
  74. "Summary of the Current United States and USSR Positions on Disarmament and of Significant Developments Since NSC 112" and "The Technical Feasibility of International Control of Atomic Energy." See ibid., 1540n.4.
  75. Summary of Discussion in the NSC Planning Board Meeting, October 18, 1954, ibid., 1537-40. The formal title of the "Loper Report," dated August 27, 1954, was "A Review of the United States Policy on the Regulation, Limitation, and Balanced Reduction of Armed Forces and Armaments."
  76. Summary of NSC Planning Board Meeting, October 18, 1954, 1537-38.
  77. Ibid., 1538-40. The reference is to the Working Group of the Special Committee.
  78. Appleby, Eisenhower and Arms Control, 41-44, 65-67.
  79. Memorandum of conversation, November 27, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 2:1563-64.
  80. Ibid., 1564-66.
  81. In addition to the reports already cited, these included a synopsis of the Defense member's position of November 24, a December 2 report by the State member, and a statement by the AEC member on December 2. See memorandum by Cutler to Dulles, Wilson, and Strauss, December 10, 1954, ibid., 1580.
  82. Memorandum by the NSC Planning Board, annex to Cutler to Dulles, Wilson, and Strauss, December 10, 1954, ibid., 1581-82; Wilson to Dulles, December 11, 1954, 1582-84. Wilson noted that he sent this identical letter to Strauss.
  83. Memorandum of conversation, December 29, 1954, ibid., 1585-86.
  84. Ibid., 1586-88.
  85. Ibid., 1588.
  86. Ibid., 1588-89.
  87. Memorandum of conversation, January 4, 1955, FR, 1955-57, 20:1-7; memorandum of conversation, February 9, 1955, ibid., 15-20.
  88. Memorandum of conversation, January 4, 1955, 1-5.
  89. Ibid., 5-6.
  90. Ibid., 6-7.
  91. Memorandum of conversation, February 9, 1955, 15-16.
  92. Ibid., 16-17.
  93. Ibid., 17-18.
  94. Ibid., 18-20.
  95. Memorandum of NSC meeting, February 10, 1955, ibid., 29-30.
  96. Ibid., 30. (emphasis in original)
  97. Ibid., 31-32.
  98. Ibid., 32-34.
  99. Editorial note, ibid., 58. See also Stassen and Houts, Eisenhower, 275-91.

Chapter 15: The Eisenhower Legacy

  1. Bundy, Danger and Surival, 287.
  2. Eisenhower, Farewell Radio and Television Address to the American People, January 17, 1961, PPP, Eisenhower, 1960-1961 (Washington, 1961), 421.
  3. Hewlett and Holl, Atoms for Peace and War, 172-82; Bundy, Danger and Survival, 320.
  4. Summary of Eisenhower talks with Rhee, July 27, 1954, in Ferrell, ed., Hagerty Diary, 102.
  5. Eisenhower to Churchill, March 19, 1954, in Boyle, ed., Churchill-Eisenhower Correspondence, 125.
  6. Quoted in Bundy, Danger and Survival, 259.
  7. See especially Peter J. Roman, Eisenhower and the Missile Gap (Ithaca, 1995).
  8. Rosenberg, "Origins of Overkill," 64-65; Fred Kaplan, The Wizards of Armageddon (NY, 1983), 266-70. We would argue that the explanation for Eisenhower's lack of attention to targeting plans was that throughout his administration his priority was on avoiding general war, not planning how to fight one (which, as noted, he believed would be an unmitigated catastrophe under any circumstances).
  9. Zubok and Pleshakov, Inside the Kremlin's Cold War, 188-89; David Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939-1956 (New Haven, 1994), 335-45.
  10. Radio and Television address to the American People on the Geneva Conference, July 25, 1955, PPP, Eisenhower, 1955 (Washington, 1957), 728.
  11. Report to the President by the Technical Capabilities Panel of the Science Advisory Committee, February 14, 1955, reprinted in Marc Trachtenberg, ed., The Development of American Strategic Thought: Basic Documents from the Eisenhower and Kennedy Periods, Including the Basic National Security Papers from 1953-1959 (NY, 1988), 187-90.
  12. Roman, Eisenhower and the Missile Gap, 193. See also Bundy, Danger and Survival, 319. Moreover, at Eisenhower's initiative in late 1958 a "Conference of Experts" was convened in Geneva for the "Study of Possible Measures Which Might be Helpful in Preventing Surprise Attack."
  13. Eisenhower address, October 8, 1952. (authors' emphasis)
  14. NSC 141, FR, 1952-54, 2:219-20.
  15. David Alan Rosenberg, "The End(s) of American Strategy: Lesson from Plans and Budgets from America's Nuclear Revolution, 1945-1960," paper presented to the U.S. Army War College Conference on "Strategy for the Lean Years," April 27, 1995. We are indebted to Professor Rosenberg for providing us with a copy of his paper.
  16. NSC 135/3, FR, 1952-54, 2:146; NSC 141, ibid., 213.
  17. Rosenberg, "The End(s) of American Strategy."
  18. Gerard C. Smith, Disarming Diplomat: The Memoirs of Gerard C. Smith, Arms Negotiator (Lanham, MD, 1996).
  19. See Robert R. Bowie's Foreword to "The North Atlantic Nations Tasks for the 1960s: A Report to the Secretary of State, August 1960, [The 'Bowie Report']" Nuclear History Program Occasional Paper 7 (1991): v-vii.
  20. Entry for January 6, 1953, in Ferrell, Eisenhower Diaries, 223-24.
  21. NSC 162/2, 592. (authors' emphasis)
  22. This process is analyzed in detail in Kaufman, Trade and Aid, on which the following discussion draws.
  23. Audrey and George McT. Kahin, Subversion and Foreign Policy: The Secret Eisenhower and Dulles Debacle in Indonesia (NY, 1995).
  24. Eisenhower, Second Inaugural Address, January 21, 1957, PPP, Eisenhower, 1957 (Washington, 1958), 60-65.
  25. Ambrose, Eisenhower: President, 376-81.
  26. Russell Edgerton, Sub-Cabinet Politics and Policy Commitment: The Birth of the Development Loan Fund (NY, 1970).
  27. Kaufman, Trade and Aid, 207-11.
  28. Zubok and Pleshakov, Inside the Kremlin's Cold War, 193-94.
  29. Smith, Disarming Diplomat.
  30. On the [Pierre] Harmel Report, see Lawrence S. Kaplan, NATO and the United States: The Enduring Alliance (Boston, 1988), 121-27.
  31. Greenstein and Immerman, "What Did Eisenhower Tell Kennedy about Indochina."
  32. Most studies of Eisenhower's foreign and national security policy reflect the disciplinary divide between history and political science. Whereas historians focus on the substance of policy by examining the product and consequences of the process, the concern of political scientists is more instrumental and prescriptive. Rather than ask such questions as whether a policy was "good," the latter seek to determine how Eisenhower gathered and consumed information, the rigor with which he explored alternative courses of action, what effect his advisory arrangements had on his conduct, and if his personality and leadership style were conducive to candid, informed, and therefore constructive debate. Our framework rejects this dichotomy, which is explicitly expressed in Robert J. McMahon, "Eisenhower and Third World Nationalism: A Critique of the Revisionists," Political Science Quarterly 101 (Centennial Year 1886-1986), 45; John P. Burke and Fred I. Greenstein, in Collaboration with Larry Berman and Richard H. Immerman, How Presidents' Test Reality: Decisions on Vietnam, 1954 and 1965 (New York, 1989), 3.
  33. Irving L. Janis, Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes (Boston, 1982)
  34. Alexander George, "The Case for Multiple Advocacy in Making Foreign Policy," American Political Science Review 66 (1972): 751-85. See also idem., Presidential Decisionmaking in Foreign Policy: The Effective Use of Information and Advice (Boulder, 1980), esp. chapter 1.
  35. Memorandum of NSC discussion, December 3, 1954, FR, 1952-54, 2:804-05.

Select Bibliography

Archives and Manuscript Collections

Bernard Baruch Papers, Seeley G. Mudd Library, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.

Stephen Benedict Papers, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, KA.

Allen W. Dulles Papers, Seeley G. Mudd Library, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.

John Foster Dulles Papers, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, KA.

John Foster Dulles Papers, Seeley G. Mudd Library, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.

Dwight D. Eisenhower as President of the United States, 1953-1961, (Whitman File), Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, KA.

Dwight D. Eisenhower Pre-Presidential Papers, 1916-1952, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, KA.

Emmet J. Hughes Papers, Seeley G. Mudd Library, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.

C. D. Jackson Papers, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, KA.

Arthur J. Krock Papers, Seeley G. Mudd Library, Princeton, University, Princeton, NJ.

David Lawrence Papers, Seeley G. Mudd Library, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.

President's Committee on International Information Activities (Jackson Committee) Records, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, KA.

Arthur W. Radford Collection, Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace, Stanford, California.

Clarence Randall Papers, Seeley G. Mudd Library, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey.

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, Records, RG 263, National Archives.

U.S. Department of Defense, Office of the Secretary of Defense Central Decimal File, RG 330, National Archives.

U.S. Department of Defense, Records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, RG 218, National Archives.

U.S. Department of State, Secretary of State-National Security Council files, RG 59, National Archives.

U.S. Department of State, Policy Planning Staff (S/P) files, RG 59, National Archives.

U.S. National Security Council, Records of the Planning Board,, RG 273, National Archives.

White House Central (Confidential) File, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, KA.

White House Office, National Security Council Staff, Papers, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, KA.

White House Office, Office of the Special Assistant for National Security Affairs, Records, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, KA.

White House Office, Office of the Staff Secretary, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, KA.
 

Published Documents

Boyle, Peter G., ed., The Churchill-Eisenhower Correspondence, 1953-1955, Chapel Hill, 1990.

Chandler, Afred E., Jr. and Louis Galambos, Jr., eds., The Papers of Dwight D. Eisenhower: The War Years - , Baltimore, 1970- .

Jackson, Henry M. ed., The National Security Council: Jackson Subcommittee Papers on Policy-Making at the Presidential Level, NY, 1965.

Leary, William M., ed., The Central Intelligence Agency: History and Documents, University, AL, 1984.

"The North Atlantic Nations Tasks for the 1960s: A Report to the Secretary of State, August 1960," Nuclear History Program Occasional Paper 7 (1991).

Peace with Justice: Selected Addresses of Dwight D. Eisenhower, New York, 1961.

Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1953-1960/61, Washington, D.C., 1958-61.

Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman, 1945-1952/53, Washington, D.C., 1961-66.

U.S. Congress. House of Representatives. Hearings Before the Committee on Armed Services on Universal Military Training, 80th Cong., 2nd Sess., Washington, 1948.

U.S. Congress. House of Representatives. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Postwar Military Policy on H.R. 465, a Resolution to Establish a Select Committee on Postwar Military Policy 79th Cong., 1st sess., Washington, 1945.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Hearing Before the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Armed Services on S. Con. Res. 8, A Concurrent Resolution Relative to the Assignment of Ground Forces of the United States to Duty in the European Area, 82nd Cong., Ist Sess., Washington, 1951.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Hearings Before the Preparedness Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services on S. 1, A Bill to Provide for the Common Defense and Security of the United States and to Permit the More Effective Utilization of Manpower Resources of the United States by Authorizing Universal Military Service and Training, and For Other Purposes, 82nd Cong. 1st Sess., Washington, 1951.

U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1946-1957, Washington, D.C., 1952-1990.
 

Books

Acheson, Dean, Present at the Creation, New York, 1969.

Alperovitz, Gar, Atomic Diplomacy: Hiroshima and Potsdam--The Use of the Atomic Bomb and the American Confrontation with Soviet Power rev. ed., New York., 1985.

Ambrose, Stephen E., Eisenhower: The President, New York, 1984.

--------, Eisenhower: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect, 1890-1952, New York, 1983.

Ambrose, Stephen E., with Richard H. Immerman, Ike's Spies: Eisenhower and the Espionage Establishment, Garden City, NY, 1981.

Anderson, David L., Trapped By Success: The Eisenhower Administration and Vietnam, 1953-61, New York, 1991.

Andrew, Christopher, For the President's Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington To Bush, New York, 1995.

Axelrod, Robert, ed., Structure of Decision: The Cognitive Maps of Political Elites, Princeton, 1976.

Barlow, Jeffrey G., Revolt of the Admirals: The Fight for Naval Aviation, 1945-1950, Washington, D.C., 1994.

Billings-Yun, Melanie, Decision Against War: Eisenhower and Dien Bien Phu, New York, 1988.

Bischof, Gunter, and Stephen E. Ambrose, eds, Eisenhower: A Centenary Assessment, Baton Rouge, 1995.

Brands, H. W., Jr., Cold Warriors: Eisenhower's Generation and American Foreign Policy, New York, 1988.

--------, The Specter of Neutralism: The United States and the Emergence of the Third World, 1947-1960, New York, 1989.

Brendon, Piers, Ike: His Life & Times, New York, 1986.

Brodie, Bernard, et. al., The Absolute Weapon: Atomic Power and World Order, New York, 1946.

Bundy, MacGeorge, Danger and Surival: Choices About the Bomb in the First Fifty Years, New York, 1988.

Burke, John P. and Fred I. Greenstein, in Collaboration with Larry Berman and Richard H. Immerman, How Presidents' Test Reality: Decisions on Vietnam, 1954 and 1965, New York, 1989.

Childs, Marquis, Eisenhower: Captive Hero, New York, 1958.

Clark, Kenneth C., and Laurence J. Leger, eds., The President and the Management of National Security: A Report by the Institute for Defense Analysis, New York, 1969.

Cohen, Warren I., and Akira Iriye, eds., The Great Powers in East Asia, 1953-1960, New York, 1990.

Cook, Blanche Wiesen, The Declassified Eisenhower: A Divided Legacy, Garden City, NY, 1981.

Cullather, Nick, Illusion of Influence: The Political Economy of United States-Phillipines Relations, Stanford, 1994.

Cutler, Robert, No Time for Rest, Boston, 1966.

Dallin, David J., Soviet Foreign Policy After Stalin, Philadelphia, 1961.

Divine, Robert, Eisenhower and the Cold War, New York, 1981.

--------, Foreign Policy and Presidential Elections, 1952-1960, New York, 1974.

Dockrill, Saki, Britain's Policy for West German Rearmament, 1950-55, Cambridge, England, 1991.

--------, Eisenhower's New-Look National Security Policy, 193-61, New York, 1966.

Duchene, Francois, Jean Monnet: The First Statesman of Independence, New York, 1994.

Dulles, John Foster, War or Peace, New York, 1950.

--------, War, Peace and Change, New York, 1939.

Russell Edgerton, Sub-Cabinet Politics and Policy Commitment: The Birth of the Development Loan Fund, New York, 1970.

Eisenhower, Dwight D. At Ease: Stories I Tell to Friends, Garden City, NY, 1967.

--------, Crusade in Europe Garden City, NY, 1948.

--------, The White House Years: Mandate for Change, 1953-1956, Garden City, NY, 1963.

--------, The White House Years: Waging Peace, 1956-1961, Garden City, NY, 1965.

Eisenhower, John S. D., ed. Letters to Mamie, New York, 1978.

Robert H. Ferrell, ed., The Diary of James C. Hagerty: Eisenhower in Mid-Course, 1954-1955, Bloomington, IN, 1983.

--------, ed., The Eisenhower Diaries, New York, 1981.

Finlay, David J., et al., Enemies in Politics, Chicago, 1967.

Foot, Rosemary, A Substitute for Victory: The Politics of Peacemaking at the Korean Armistice Talks, Ithaca, 1990.

Foot, Rosemary, The Wrong War: American Policy and the Dimensions of the Korean Conflict, 1950-1953, Ithaca, 1985.

Freiberger, Steven. Dawn Over Suez: The Rise of American Power in the Middle East, 1953-1957, Chicago, 1992.

Gaddis, John Lewis, The Long Peace: Inquiries into the History of the Cold War, New York, 1987.

--------, Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar United States National Policy, New York, 1982.

Gasiorowski, Mark, U.S. Foreign Policy and the Shah: Building a Client State in Iran, Ithaca, 1991.

Geelhoed, E. Bruce, Charles E. Wilson and the Controversy at the Pentagon, 1953 to 1957, Detroit, 1979.

George, Alexander, Presidential Decisionmaking in Foreign Policy: The Effective Use of Information and Advice, Boulder, 1980

Gerson, Louis L., John Foster Dulles, New York, 1967.

Gillingham, John, Coal, Steel, and the Rebirth of Europe, 1945-1955: The Germans and French from Ruhr Conflict to Economic Community, New York, 1991.

Graebner, Norman, The New Isolationism: A Study in Politics and Foreign Policy since 1950, New York, 1956.

Greenstein, Fred I., The Hidden-Hand Presidency: Eisenhower as Leader, New York, 1982.

Grose, Peter, Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles, Boston, 1994.

Hahn, Peter L., The United States, Great Britain, and Egypt, 1945-1956: Strategy and Diplomacy in the Early Cold War, Chapel Hill, 1991.

Hanreider, Wolfram F., Germany, America, Europe: Forty Years of German Foreign Policy, New Haven, 1989.

Henderson, Philip G., Managing the Presidency: The Eisenhower Legacy--From Kennedy to Reagan, Boulder, 1988.

Hershberg, James, James B. Conant: Harvard to Hiroshima and the Making of the Nuclear Age, New York, 1993.

Hess, Stephen, Organizing the Presidency, Washington, D.C., 1976.

Hewlett, Richard G., and Jack M. Holl, Atoms for Peace and War, Berkeley, 1989.

Holloway, David, Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939-1956, New Haven, 1994.

Hoopes, Townsend, and Douglas Brinkley, Driven Patriot: The Life and Times of James Forrestal, New York, 1992.

Hughes, Emmet John, The Ordeal of Power: A Political Memoir of the Eisenhower Years, New York, 1975.

Immerman, Richard H., The CIA in Guatemala: The Foreign Policy of Intervention, Austin, 1982.

--------, ed., John Foster Dulles and the Diplomacy of the Cold War, Princeton, 1990.

Isaacson, Walter, and Evan Thomas, The Wise Men. Six Friends and the World They Made: Acheson, Bohlen, Harriman, Kennan, Lovett, McCloy, New York, 1986.

Janis, Irving L., Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes, Boston, 1982.

Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri, The CIA & American Democracy. New Haven, 1989.

Jervis, Robert R., The Meaning of the Nuclear Revolution: Statecraft and the Prospect of Armageddon, Ithaca, 1989.

--------, Perception and Misperception in International Relations, Princeton, 1976.

Johnson, Richard Tanner, Managing the White House: An Intimate Study of the Presidency, New York, 1974.

Kahin, Audrey and George McT., Subversion and Foreign Policy: The Secret Eisenhower and Dulles Debacle in Indonesia, New York, 1995.

Kaplan, Fred, The Wizzards of Armageddon, New York, 1983.

Kaplan, Lawrence S., NATO and the United States: The Enduring Alliance, Boston, 1988.

Kaplan, Lawrence S., Denise Artaud, and Mark R. Rubin, eds., Dien Bien Phu and the Crisis of Franco-American Relations, 1954-55, Lanham, MD, 1990.

Kaufman, Burton I., The Korean War: Challenges in Crisis, Credibility, and Command, New York, 1986.

--------, Trade and Aid: Eisenhower's Foreign Economic Policy, 1953-1961, Baltimore, 1982.

Kaufmann, William W., ed., Military Policy and National Security, Princeton, 1956.

Kennan, George F., Memoirs: 1950-1963, New York, 1972.

Kennedy, Paul, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000, New York, 1987.

Kinnard, Douglas, President Eisenhower and Strategy Management: A Study in Defense Politics, Lexington, KY, 1977.

Kissinger, Henry, Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy, New York, 1957.

Krieg, Joann P., ed., Dwight D. Eisenhower: Soldier, President, Statesman, Westport, CT, 1987.

Larson, Deborah Welch, Origins of Containment: A Psychological Explanation, Princeton, 1985.

Leffler, Melvyn P., A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War, Stanford, 1991.

Lyon, Peter, Eisenhower: Portrait of a Hero, Boston, 1974.

Marks, Frederick W., Power and Peace: The Diplomacy of John Foster Dulles, Westport, CT, 1993.

May, Ernest R., ed., American Cold War Strategy: Interpreting NSC 68, Boston, 1993.

McCullough, David, Truman, New York, 1992.

McMahon, Robert J., The Cold War on the Periphery: The United States, India, and Pakistan, NY, 1994.

Melanson Richard A., and David Mayers, eds., Reevaluating Eisenhower: American Foreign Policy in the Fifties, Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1987.

Mickelson, Sig, America's Other Voice: The Story of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, New York, 1983.

Miscamble, Wilson D., C.S.C., George F. Kennan and the Making of American Foreign Policy, 1947-1950, Princeton, 1992.

Morgan, Iwan W., Eisenhower Versus 'The Spenders': The Eisenhower Administration, the Democrats, and the Budget, 1953-1960, New York, 1990.

Mosely, Leonard, Dulles: A Biography of Eleanor, Allen, and John Foster Dulles and their Family Network, New York, 1978.

Nitze, Paul, with Ann M. Smith and Steven L. Rearden, From Hiroshima to Glasnost: At the Center of Decision--A Memoir, New York, 1989.

Nye, Joseph S. Jr., ed., The Making of America's Soviet Policy, New Haven, 1984.

Oshinky, David M., A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy, New York, 1983.

Pach, Chester J., Jr., and Elmo Richardson, The Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower, Lawrence, KA, 1991.

Parmet, Herbert S., Eisenhower and the American Crusades, New York, 1972.

Paterson, Thomas G., and Robert J. McMahon, eds. The Origins of the Cold War, 3rd. ed., Lexington, MA, 1991.

Patterson, James T., Mr. Republican: A Biography of Robert A. Taft, Boston, 1972.

Pickett, William, Dwight D. Eisenhower and American Power, Wheeling, IL, 1995.

Pilate, Joseph F., Robert E. Pendley, and Charles K. Ebinger, eds., Atoms for Peace: An Analysis after Thirty Years, Boulder, 1985.

Poole, Walter, History of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 4: The Joint Chiefs of Staff and National Policy, 1950-52, Wilmington, DE, 1979.

Prados, John, Keepers of the Keys: A History of the National Security Council from Truman to Bush, New York, 1991.

--------, Presidents' Secret Wars: CIA and Pentagon Covert Operations Since World War II, New York, 1986.

Pruessen, Ronald W.. John Foster Dulles: The Road to Power, New York, 1982.

Rabe, Stephen G., Eisenhower and Latin America: The Foreign Policy of Anticommunism, Chapel Hill, 1988.

Radford, Arthur W., From Pearl Harbor to Vietnam: The Memoirs of Admiral Arthur W. Radford, Stephen Jurika, Jr., ed., Stanford, 1980.

Randall, Clarence, A Creed for Free Enterprise, Boston, 1952.

Ranelagh, John, The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA from Wild Bill Donovan to Bill Casey, New York, 1986.

Gary W. Reichard, Politics as Usual: The Age of Truman and Eisenhower, New York, 1988.

--------, The Reaffirmation of Republicanism: Eisenhower and the Eighty-Third Congress, Knoxville, 1975.

Richter, James G., Khrushchev's Double Bind: International Pressures and Domestic Coalition Politics, Baltimore, 1994.

Ridgway, Matthew B., Soldier: The Memoirs of Matthew B. Ridgway, New York, 1956.

Roman, Peter, Eisenhower and the Missile Gap, Ithaca, 1995.

Roosevelt, Kermit, Countercoup: The Struggle for Control of Iran, New York, 1979.

Rositzke, Harry, The CIA's Secret Operations: Espionage, Counterespionage and Covert Action, New York, 1977.

Rostow, Walt Whitman, Europe After Stalin: Eisenhower's Three Decisions of March 11, 1953, Austin, 1982.

--------, Open Skies: Eisenhower's Proposal of July 21, 1955, Austin, 1982.

Schelling, Thomas, Arms and Influence, New Haven, 1966.

Schilling, Warner R., Paul Y. Hammond, and Glenn H. Snyder, Strategy, Politics, and Defense Budgets, New York, 1962.

Schwartz, Thomas, America's Germany: John J. McCloy and the Federal Republic of Germany, Cambridge, MA, 1991.

Sloan, John W., Eisenhower and the Management of Prosperity, Lawrence, 1991.

Smith, Gerard, Disarming Diplomat: The Memoirs of Gerard C. Smith, Arms Negotiator, Lanham, MD, 1996.

Smith, Jean, Lucius D. Clay: An American Life, New York, 1990.

Stassen, Harold, and Marshall Houts, Eisenhower: Turning the World Toward Peace, St. Paul, 1990.

Strauss, Lewis L., Men and Decisions, Garden City, NY, 1962.

Stueck, William, The Korean War: An International History, Princeton, 1995.

Tananbaum, Duane, The Bricker Amendment Controversy: A Test of Eisenhower's Political Leadership, Ithaca, 1988.

Taft, Robert A., A Foreign Policy for Americans, Garden City, NY, 1951.

Taylor, Maxwell, An Uncertain Trumpet, New York, 1959.

Thompson, Kenneth W., The Eisenhower Presidency: Eleven Intimate Perspectives on Dwight D. Eisenhower, Lanham, MD, 1984.

Toulouse, Mark G. The Transformation of Dulles: From Prophet of Realism to Priest of Nationalism, Macon, GA, 1985.

Truman, Harry S., Memoirs: Years of Trial and Hope, Garden City, NY, 1956.

Tucker, Nancy Bernkopf, Patterns in the Dust: Chinese-American Relations and the Recognition Controversy, New York, 1983.

Van Oudenaren, John, Detente in Europe: The Soviet Union and the West since 1953, Durham, 1991.

Watson, Robert J. History of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 5: The Joint Chiefs of Staff and National Policy, 1953-1954, Washington, 1986.

Weigley, Russell F., The American Way of War: A History of United States Strategy and Policy, Bloomington, 1977.

Weinstein, Martin, Japan's Postwar Defense Policy, 1947-1968, New York, 1971.

Williamson, Samuel R., Jr., and Steven L. Rearden, The Origins of U.S. Nuclear Strategy, 1945-1953, New York, 1993.

Winand, Pascaline, Eisenhower, Kennedy, and the United States of Europe, New York, 1993.

Yergin, Daniel, Shattered Peace: The Origins of the Cold War, rev. ed., New York, 1990.

Zubok, Vladislav M., and Constantine Pleshakov, Inside the Kremlin's Cold War: From Stalin to Khrushchev, Cambridge, MA, 1996.
 

Articles and Occasional Papers

Bernstein, Barton J., "Ike and Hiroshima: Did he oppose it?" Journal of Strategic Studies 10 (September 1987): 337-79.

Biddle, Tami Davis, "Handling the Soviet Threat: Project Control and the Debate on American Strategy in the Early Cold War Years," Journal of Strategic Studies (September 1989): 273-302.

Brands, H.W., Jr., "The Age of Vulnerability: Eisenhower and the National Insecurity State," American Historical Review 94 (October 1989): 963-89.

--------, "The Cairo-Tehran Connection in Anglo-American Rivalry in the Middle East, 1951-1953," The International History Review 11 (August 1989): 434-56.

Buhite, Russell D., and Wm. Chrisopher Hamel, "War for Peace: The Question of an American Preventive War against the Soviet Union, 1945-1955," Diplomatic History 14 (Summer 1990): 367-64.

Dingman, Roger, "Atomic Diplomacy During the Korean War," International Security 13 (Winter 1988/89): 50-91.

Dockrill, Saki, "Cooperation and Suspicion: The United States' Alliance Diplomacy for the Security of Western Europe, 1953-54," Diplomacy and Statecraft 5 (March 1994): 138-82.

Dulles, John Foster, "A Policy of Boldness," Life, May 19, 1952, 146+.

--------, "Policy for Security and Peace," Foreign Affairs 32 (April 1954): 353-64.

--------, "The Problem of Peace in a Dynamic World," Religion in Life 6 (Spring 1937): 191-207.

--------, "The Road to Peace," Atlantic Monthly 156 (October 1935): 492-99.

--------, "Thoughts on Soviet Foreign Policy," Life 20 (June 3, 1946), 112+; and June 10, 1946, 118+.

--------, "What I've Learned About the Russians," Colliers, March 12, 1949, 25+.

Fish, Steven, "After Stalin's Death: The Anglo-American Debate Over a New Cold War," Diplomatic History 10 (Fall 1986): 333-55.

Foot, Rosemary J., "Nuclear Coercion and the Ending of the Korean Conflict," International Security 13 (Winter 1988/89): 92-112.

Forland, Tor Egil, "'Selling Firearms to the Indians': Eisenhower's Export Control Policy, 1953-54," Diplomatic History 15 (Spring 1991): 221-44.

Garthoff, Raymond L., "Assessing the Adversary: Estimates by the Eisenhower Administration of Soviet Intentions and Capabilities," Brookings Occasional Papers, 1991.

George, Alexander, "The Case for Multiple Advocacy in Making Foreign Policy," American Political Science Review 66 (1972): 751-85.

Greenstein, Fred I., and Richard H. Immerman, "What Did Eisenhower Tell Kennedy about Indochina: The Politics of Misperception," The Journal of American History 79 (September 1992): 568-87.

Hahn, Peter L., "Containment and Egyptian Nationalism: The Unsuccessful Effort to Establish the Middle East Command, 1950-1953," Diplomatic History 11 (Winter 1987): 23-40.

Herring, George C., and Richard H. Immerman, "Eisenhower, Dulles, and Dienbienphu: The 'Day We Didn't Go to War Revisited'," The Journal of American History 71 (September 1984): 343-363.

"Hiroshima in History and Memory: A Symposium," Diplomatic History 19 (Spring 1995): 197-365.

Immerman, Richard H., "Confessions of an Eisenhower Revisionist: An Agonizing Reappraisal," Diplomatic History 14 (Summer 1990): 319-342.

--------, "Eisenhower and Dulles: Who Made the Decisions? Political Psychology 1 (Autumn 1979): 21-38.

--------, "Psychology," Journal of American History 77 (June 1990): 169-80.

Ingimundarson, Valur, "The Eisenhower Administration, the Adenauer Government, and the Political Uses of the East German Uprising in 1953," Diplomatic History 20 (Summer 1996): 381-409.

Jervis, Robert R., "Cooperation under the Security Dilemma," World Politics 30 (January 1978): 167-214.

Kennan, George, "Is War with Russia Inevitable? Five Solid Arguments for Peace," Readers Digest 56 (March 1950): 1-9.

-------- [Mr. "X"], "The Sources of Soviet Conduct," Foreign Affairs 25 (July 1947): 566-82.

Larres, Klaus, "Preserving Law and Order: Britain, the United States, and the East German Uprising of 1953," Twentieth Century British History 5 (1994): 320-50.

Larson, Deborah Welch, "Crisis Prevention and the Austrian State Treaty," International Organization 41 (Winter 1987): 27-60.

MacMillan, Alan, and John Baylis, "A Reassessment of the British Global Strategy Paper of 1952," Nuclear History Program Occasional Paper 8 (1994).

McMahon, Robert J., "Eisenhower and Third World Nationalism: A Critique of the Revisionists," Political Science Quarterly 101 (Centennial Year 1886-1986): 453-73.

--------, "United States Cold War Strategy in South Asia: Making a Military Commitment to Pakistan, 1947-1954," Journal of American History 75 (December 1988): 812-40.

Morgenthau, Hans. "The Dulles Doctrine: 'Instant Retaliation,'" New Republic, March 29, 1954," 10-14.

Mosely, Philip E., "The Kremlin's Foreign Policy Since Stalin," Foreign Affairs 32 (October 1953): 20-33.

Murphy, Charles J. V., "The Eisenhower Shift: Parts I-IV," Fortune, January-March, 1956.

--------, "Eisenhower's Most Critical Defense Budget," Fortune, December 1956, 112+.

Nelson, Anna Kasten, "The 'Top of Policy Hill': President Eisenhower and the National Security Council," Diplomatic History 7 (Fall 1983): 307-26.

Ostermann, Christian F., "'Keeping the Pot Simmering': The United States and the East German Uprising of 1953," German Studies Review 19 (February 1996): 61-89.

Rabe, Stephen G., "Eisenhower Revisionism: A Decade of Scholarship," Diplomatic History 17 (Winter 1993): 97-115.

Richter, James G., "Perpetuating the Cold War: Domestic Sources of International Patterns of Behavior," Political Science Quarterly 107 (Summer 1992): 271-301.

--------, "Reexamining Soviet Policy Towards Germany during the Beria Interregnum," Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars' Cold War International History Project Working Paper 3 (1992).

Rosenberg, David A., "The Origins of Overkill: Nuclear Weapons and American Strategy, 1945-1960," International Security 7 (Spring 1983): 3-71.

Sagan, Scott D., "The Perils of Proliferation: Organization Theory, Deterrence Theory, and the Spread of Nuclear Weapons," International Security 18 (Spring 1994): 79-80.

Spaulding, Robert Mark, Jr., "'A Gradual and Moderate Relaxation': Eisenhower and the Revision of American Export Control Policy, 1953-1955," Diplomatic History 17 (Spring 1993): 223-49.

Trachtenberg, Marc, "A 'Wasting Asset': American Strategy and the Shifting Nuclear Balance," International Security 13 (Winter 1988/89): 5-49.

Walker, J. Samuel, "The Decision to Use the Bomb: A Historiographical Update," Diplomatic History 14 (Winter 1990): 97-114.

Wampler, Robert A., "NATO Strategic Planning and Nuclear Weapons: 1950-1957," Nuclear History Program Occasional Paper No. 6 (July 1990).

Wells, Samuel F. Jr., "The Origins of Massive Retaliation," Political Science Quarterly 86 (Spring 1991): 31-52.

Zubok, Vladislav M., "Soviet Intelligence and the Cold War: The 'Small' Committee of Information, 1952-53," Diplomatic History 19 (Summer 1995): 453-72.
 

Unpublished Dissertations

Appleby, Charles A. Jr., Eisenhower and Arms Control, 1953-1961: The Balance of Risks, Johns Hopkins Univerity School of Advanced International Studies, 1987.

Duchin, Brian Roger, The New Look: President Eisenhower and the Political Economy of National Security, University of Texas, 1987.

Shimizu, Sayurai, Creating People of Plenty: The United States and Japan's Economic Alternatives, 1953-1958, Cornell University, 1991.

Wampler, Robert, Ambiguous Legacy: The United States, Great Britain, and the Formulation of NATO Strategy, 1948-1957, Harvard University, 1991.


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