vulnerable to natural disaster, difficult to provide relief (Haiti,
civil war is very bad for health Congo-2006
1. Historical Background:
Colonialism and Decolonialization created "artificial," weak states states, detached from society
Exceptions (more or less):
(China, Japan, Thailand, Ethiopia, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Iran)
National Independence Movements created a temporary, confusing appearance of "national" unity.
a. Decolonialization created "autonomous"
"artificial" states, not linked to society
Pre-existing political social structures weakened
b. no congruence between "state" and "nation"
c. no tradition of western
traditional governance based on kinship, lineage
d. states were weak, with
little power or control over citizens
especially weak tax collecting (relied on export duties), border control, policing on crime,
large areas of the country may be outside government control
e. great economic problems:
i. domestic poverty
ii. challenging international economic system
f. weak "civil society" non state
interest groups, trade unions, professional associations,
student groups, churches, media
few/no integrating, trans-national organizational structures
g. weak constraints on state power.
"Civil society, in short, functions as the citizens' curb on the power of the state."
Without civil society, there aren't many constraints.
h. (WEAK) HYPOTHESIS
The more artificial a state is, the less domestic support is has.
To maintain stability, it is more likely to resort to:
appeals to tribalism (or nationalism to overcome tribalism)
dictatorial rule, often military rule
violence, repression of political opponents, mass arrests and murders
foreign military and economic support.
i. Can civil society be "developed" by external aid?
- there were programs to strengthen civil society in communist and post communist
2. Development can bring instability and political decay (Huntington) Reports on current conflicts
3. Resulting Political Forms
a. Democracy tried, seemed easy, generally
Most democratic: Trinidad, Bahamas, Uruguay, Costa Rica, Brazil,
India, South Korea Taiwan
b. traditional kinship relations too narrow, restrictive
c. Standard Solution: "Clientelism" "patron client relations"
exchange relationship between unequals
favors, connections, bribes, corruption, nepotism
not law, not ideology
power and resources, need labor and votes
Clients are poor, precarious, need work and protection
may support some officials and business men in exchange
for payment (aka corruption)
d. secessionist tendencies
economic: local leaders want more power and bigger share of natural wealth
The curse of wealth, cherchez l'petro in Nigeria, Iraq
international actors eager to help:
-weaken rival state
-obtain strategic allies
-cheaper access to natural wealth
e. extensive domestic violence
-- young, angry, unemployed men
scources: weak economic growth, few available jobs
public health measures create demographic bulge
results: gangs, protection schemes, violent rivalries
children armies/gangs (the perfect weapon)
-- brutal leaders, seeking power and wealth